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Soc pt 2 SLIDES

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tasnimjaisee's version from 2018-02-28 21:21

Globalization

Question Answer
GlobalizationWorldwide exchange of money, goods, services & sociocultural changes in increasing trade & human contact - People & instituitions become aware & dependent on each other - Increases transnational flow
The Sources of GlobalizationTechnological - Political - Economic
Political Changeshift towards capitalism and democracy
Economic ChangeIndustrial capitalism seeks new markets, higher profits, and lower labour costs - Expanding trade andinternational banking
Some anti-globalization activists view globalization as a form of?imperialism
What does the IMF do?Promote international monetary stability - Economic growth - Temporary financial assistance to poor countries
Word bank descriptionLoans to poor countries building roads, bridges, dams supporting infastructure
What has worldbank been criticized for?Interfering with local decisions - Charging High interest
Global commodity chainA worldwide network of labour & production processes resulting finished commodity
Modernization theoryeconomic underdevelopment results from poor countries lacking Western attributes
Dependency TheoryViews economic underdevelopment result of exploitative relations between rich and poor countries
World Systems TheoryWallerstein focuses on the economic & political hierarchy linking economies in a global system - Capitalist development resulted: Core-Periphery-Semiperiphery
World Systems Theory: Corewealthy countries with developed economies
World Systems Theory: Peripherypoor countries that are exploited for their raw materials by core countries
World Systems Theory: Semi-peripheryperipheral countries moving toward becoming core, or core countries in delince
Several reforms have been suggested to improve the situation of debtOversight of foreign aid - Debt canellation - Rariff reduction
How can we describe our Global World?Global - Local - Glocal
McDonaldizationEfficiency - Cacluability - Predictability - Control by means of technology - Irrationality of Rationality
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Racism

Question Answer
What is a minority? People socially diasadvantaged
2 components of membership in minority groupLacks social power - Distinct from majority
What is the "myth of race" Race is not biological reality
How is race involved in social construction Race is a social category - Racialization process
Why do some argue "race" should be replaced withMinority group/racialized population;
Ethnic group Collection of people identifying with each other and sharing common culture, art, language etc.
EthnicityMulti-dimensional: Includes one's status, ancesrory language and religion - Fluid and socially constructed
Ways of thinking about ethnicityCultural Toolkit - Shopping Cart - Ethnic Options - Master Status
History of Imigration PolicyHierarchy of desirable immigrants - Economically driven - Exclusionary
Who is the ideal Canadian? Agricultural - Industrial - Post-Industrial Economy
Explain head taxFee needed to be paid per Chinese immigrant—form of deterrent ‣ 50 to 500 dollars to exclude more immigrants
Explain continuous journeyCould not immigrate to Canada unless you come via continuous journey — steamship’s added to this by stoping direct route from India to Canada
What are the 2 ways immigrants were stopped in industrial economyHead-tax - continuous journey
which percent of recent immigrants choose to live in Toronto, Montreal or Vancouver?75%
Why does Canada have high levels of immigration? Supply workers (for economy) - Demographic (population growth) - Manage geographic isolation - Popular support for managed immigration - Humanitarian image
Why does chain migration occur?Social support system - Wanting to be with family
Why do people migrate? Push-Pull Theory & Chain Migration
How to become a permanent resident Current Entry Regulations Classes?Economic - Family - Refugee
PrejudiceNegative attitude or assessment about what a person or group is like before you actually meet them
Types of prejudiceEcological and exception fallacy & Stereotype
Ecological fallacyDraw conclusions about individuals and attributes based on notion of data
Exception fallacyAssuming traits of races; not done if they were white
Stereotypewidely held and fixed oversimplified idea of type of person
Discrimination/RacismDominant group members' action harmfully impacting subordinate group members
3 types of discrimination Individual - Direct-Institutional - Indrect-Institutional
Individual Discrimination• Acting in own accord • “I won’t rent them the room because they won’t pay the rent anyway”
Direct Institutional DiscriminationDirectly stating “Blacks need not apply”
Indirect Institutional DiscriminationImmigrants never getting hired for certain positions
The Vicious Circle of Racism Part 1Physical markers distinguish groups & create social inequality based on race (colonialism, slavery)
The Vicious Circle of Racism Part 2Social conditions (superordinates vs. subordinates) create behavioural differences (ex. energy vs. lazy workers)
The Vicious Circle of Racism Part 3Behavioural differences create racial stereotypes embedded in culture
Explain conflict theory of raceprejudice & discrimination are outcomes of competition - Powerful groups benefit from from differentiation, exclusion & institutional racism - Race explains and legitimizes class based inequalities
Explain symbolic interactionism theory of raceAttitudes & perceptions aren't innate; they are learned - Focus on label & identity - Racial Socialization - Selective perception
Multiracial Feminist Theory or Intersectional TheoryInvestigates race, class, gender and citizenship - Voices WOC feeling alienated from trad white feminism
Six Degrees of SeparationGenocide - Expusion - Slavery - Segregation - Pluralism - Assimilation
Assimilationdistinct & separate group share a common culture & socially merge - immigrants lose/lose importance of ethnic identity integrating - Traditional to modern culture
To further multiculturalism, we need to see it as?Demographic reality - Policy - Form of struggle for resources - Ideal
Aboriginal Peoples demographicsFastest growing segment - Young population - Increasingly urban
memorize

Sexuality

Question Answer
SexBiologically rooted
GenderSocially constructed characteristics
Intersexed individualsBorn with ambiguous genitalia
TransgenderUmbrella term for not fit into normative constructions of sex and gender
TranssexualWhom undergo sex reassignment (realignment) surgery
SexualityA person’s capacity for erotic experiences and expressions
Gender identitySense of belonging to sex biologically, psychologically and socially
Gender roleWdely shared expectations about how males or females are supposed to act
Essentialismbiological roots of gender and sexuality, ignoring their historical and cultural variability
Gender ideologyInterrelated ideas constituting masculine and feminine roles and behaviours
Hegemonic MasculinityIdeal of masculinity men strive to achieve - successful, capable, and reliable - Tied to heterosexuality
Emphasized Femininitywomen’s compliance with their subordination to men - supportive, enthusiastic and sexually attractive
The Earnings Gap: Four FactorsGender decrimination - Sex segregation - Women's disproportionality domestic responsibiltiy - Devaluation of women's work skills
We ‘perform’ gender every day… by?Masculine and feminine sexuality - Double standard - Racialized Double Standard
Functionalist theory for gender/sexualityWomen & men perform seperate (Intrumental and expressive) roles; reducing conflict regarding expectations
conflict theory for gender/sexualityExamining gender differences access control of scarce resources - analyze power and inequality
Symbolic interactionism for gender/sexualitymeanings of masculinity and femininity - "do" gender - Sexual scripts
Feminist Theory for gender/sexualityGender is socially constructed - Identifies institutionalized and internalized norms limitations to women’s behaviours and opportunities
The Sociology of HouseworkOakley, investigates in insisting women’s natural fitness for the career of mother - Opposes self-actualization - disempowers
stalled revolutionbecause although women are able to achieve some self-actualization in attaining fulfilling jobs, but they are still responsible for domestic work
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