juliaterese's version from 2015-05-04 20:36

Section 1

Question Answer
4 things required for a sensationstimulus, sensory receptor, conduction, integration
somatic sensestactile, thermal, pain, proprioception
what kind of sense is balance and equilibrium?special
sensations felt by free nerve endingspain, thermal, tickle, itch, some touch
sensations felt by encapsulated nerve endingspressure, vibration, some touch
sensations felt by separate cell nerve endingsretina, inner ear, taste buds

Section 2

Question Answer
where is the primary motor area?precentral gyrus
where is the premotor area?postcentral gyrus
kind of receptor that senses proprioceptionmechanoreceptor
where heart attack pain refersleft arm
where ovarian cyst or kidney stone pain refersback
what ibuprofin stopspostganglionic impulse
what powerful anesthetics like morphine stoptransmission of nerve signal
muscle fibers that fire firstintrafusal
respond to gammaintrafusal
respond to alphaextrafusal
muscle fibers that fire secondextrafusal
where is tendon organ?junction of tendon and muscle
at junction of tendon and muscle

Section 3

Question Answer
corpuscle of touchmeissner, fine touch, pressure, slow vibration, rapid
hair root plexuscrude touch, rapid
type 1 cutaneous mechanoreceptorMerkel, fine touch, pressure, slow
type 2 cutaneous mechanoreceptorRuffini, stretching of skin, slow
most sensitive touch receptorlamellated corpuscles (Pacinian)
lamelated corpusclesPacilian, pressure, fast vibes, tickle, rapid
muscle spindlesmuscle length, slow
tendon organsmuscle tension, slow, stretching
joint kin. joint position, movements, rapid
cold receptors50-105, rapid then slow
hot receptors90-118, rapid, then slow
nocireceptorsin all tissues but brain, slow

Section 4

Question Answer
help conduct rhythmic activity, specific to certain muscle activitylocal circuit neurons
regulate muscle tone, control posture, help balance head on bodyupper motor neuron circuit
initiate and stop movementsbasal nuceli
reduce error in movementscerebellar neurons
impulses from somatic senses to brainfirst order neurons
impulses from brain stem or spinal cord to thalamus or cerebellumsecond order neurons
from thalamus to somatosensory areas of the brain (primary motor, premotor)third order neurons
circuit for walkinglocal circuit
role of cerebellummonitor intentions, monitor movements, corrective feedback
role of basal nucleiinitiation/termination of movement, muscle tone, suppression, cortical function

Section 5

Question Answer
posterior column-medial lemniscus functionsensory, conscious proprioception, most tactile, 2 point discrimination
cuneate facisculussensory, part of posterior column-medial meniscus, upper limbs, upper trunk, neck, head
gracile faciculussensory, part of posterior column-medial meniscus, lower limbs, lower trunk
anterolateral carries sensory impulse to cerebral cortex on opposite side
lateral spinothalamicanterolateral sensory path, pain and temp
anterior spinothalamicanterolateral sensory path, itch, tickle, pressure, vibrations, crude touch
spinocerebellar carries sensory impulse to cerebellum for proprioception, posture, balance and skilled movements
anterior and posterior spinocerebellarcarry sensory impulses to same side of cerebellum
direct motor pathways (pyramidal)lateral corticospinal, anterior corticospinal
lateral corticospinalmotor cortex --> opposite side skeletal muscle, distal limbs
anterior corticospinalmotor cortex --> opposite side skeletal muscle, trunk, proximal limbs
corticobulbarmotor cortex --> cranial nerves --> skeletal muscles of head and neck
indirect extrapyramidal motor pathwaysrubrosinal, tectospinal, vestibulospinal, reticulospinal
rubrospinal motor pathred nucleus --> skeletal muscles on opposite side, upper limbs (voluntary)
tectospinal motor pathsuperior colliculus --> skeletal muscle, reflex, head, eyes, trunk
vestibulospinal motor pathvestibular nucleus --> skeletal trunk, proximal free limbs, balance in reponse to movement of head
reticulospinal motor pathretucular formation --> skeletal muscle, posture, regulate muscle tone in reponse to ongoing movements
precentral gyruspart of brain where voluntary movement starts