SN - Protein 1

bethdrysdale94's version from 2017-03-20 10:32

Section 1

Question Answer
Which amino acids are essential?8: isoleucine, leucine, valine, lysine, methionine, phenyalanine, threonine, tryptophan
Which amino acids can be oxidised as fuel?8: isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, asparagine, aspartate, glutamate, lysine
How many amino acids are involved in human nutrition?20
What is the typical AA structure?H2N-HC"R"-COOH
What is the equation for Net Protein Balance?NPB = Muscle Protein Synthesis - Muscle Protein Breakdown
Sedentary Requirements for protein?0.8g/kg/day
Name some contributing factors to the free amino acid pooldigestion of dietary protein, tissue protein degradation, dispensable amino acid synthesis from CHO, FAT and NH3, IV infusions
Name some outputs from the free amino acid poolsweat (nitrogen), urine, oxidation (to CO2), protein synthesis in tissue
When does muscle mass begin to change in sedentary adults? (Doesnt usually change)old age = sarcopenia, related to age-related diseases ie diabetes, dementia

Section 2

Question Answer
How is protein balance measured?Nitrogen balance techniques (simplest) and tracer techniques (more reliable)
What is possible with tracer techniques but not nitrogen balance?can identify protein transport to specific areas in the body, as well as overall protein balance
What is different about the fluctuations in synthesis and breakdown?fluctuations are greater in synthesis, but usually they equal eachother out because breakdown is more constant
What effect does protein synthesis and resistance exercise have on synthesis? (Phillips 2013)increases synthesis, biggest increase in the morning, synthesis rates decrease slightly over the day
What are the usual components of measuring protein synthesis?resistance exercise often performed, manipulation of post-exercise protein nutrition, and AA infusion alongside blood and muscle biopsies (not a comfortable procedure)
What amino acids can be infused/are often infused?Leucine and Phenyalanine
How many muscle biopsies must be taken in order to measure synthesis?2 or more

Section 3

Question Answer
What was the basis of Phillips et al 1997 study?resistance exercise and NPB with no protein intake, measured MPS and MPB at 3, 24 and 48 hours post exercise.
What were the results of Phillips et al 1997 study?resistance exercise increases protein balance, but it is still negative without protein intake in UNTRAINED individuals
What does FSR stand for?Fractional synthetic rate
What happened at 3 hours post exercise?biggest increase in both MPS and MPB
What happened at 48hours post exercise?muscle protein breakdown was still greater than muscle protein synthesis
Which increase is bigger after exercise, synthesis or breakdown?Synthesis has a bigger increase post exercise but overall NPB is still negative

Section 4

Question Answer
describe what happens to MPS after lower body resistant exercise and 0,5,10,20 and 40g of egg proteinincrease until 20g, where it plateaued, 40g was not significantly more effective
How much egg protein maximised MPS in a trained athlete after lower body resistance?20g
describe what happens to MPS after unilateral lower body resistant exercise and 0,10,20 and 40g of whey proteinincreased up until 20, 40 still increased but was not significant. 20g maximised MPS post exercise and at rest
Is 20g enough to ACTUALLY maximise MPS??not a fair conclusion, both studies used trained athletes at 80-85kg and only lower body resistance so active muscle mass was small in comparison to body weight
What was McNaughtons study?20 or 40g of protein in low and high lean body mass athletes after whole body resistance exercise
Does full body exercise require more protein?Yes, 40g whey protein increased MPS to a greater extent than 20g in McNaughtons study
Does body size affect MPS post protein feeding post exercise?No significant effect on MPS in Macnaughtons study