Small mammal ALL for quiz- rats, mice, chins, gpig, hams, gerbils, oddballs 2

kelseyfmeyer's version from 2015-11-03 14:36


Question Answer
who gets hypercholesterolemia?gpigs (pigs have high
if you are tx a gpig with antimicrobials, what should you provide?lactobacillus supplement
foot stomping is a normal thing to do when excited?gerbil
who is ONLY herbiverous? (3)gpig, chinchillas, pdog
The predominant circulating leukocyte in healthy guinea pigs is the___?lymphocyte
who forms their food preferences by 6mo of age, and then wont want to try new things?gpigs (picky pigs, just like rollie)
how much BV can be collected on a gpig?7-10% of BV can be collected (so roughly 1.5ml he said)
fertile post-partum estrus in who?gerbil, gpig, sugar gliders (GGS-- Good to Go for Seconds)
who has Foa-Kurloff cells? what are these? look like?gpigs-- Leukocyte unique to the Guinea Pig & Capybara. Its a mononuclear cell the size of a large lymphocyte, with a VERY LARGE, SLIGHTLY GRANULAR, MAGENTA cytoplasmic inclusion body. they are highest in females during preg, it may create a physiological barrier between fetus and dam (a FOA BOA made of pigskin)
which is the one you can do closed OR open castration on, even though everyone has open inguinal rings?gpig (although their inguinal ring is open, they have a large epididymal fat pad in the vaginal tunic so theyre less likely to herniate)
find copulatory plug if successful copulation?gpigs
*****whats super important to know about the timing of breeding your female gpig?THEIR PELVIC SYMPHISIS CLOSES AT 6 MONTHS! If you don't breed them before then (notes say prior to 7-8mo) then you will need a C-section to get babies out from a concepton after this time window
who much you breeed before 6mo of age?gpigs
**which mite affects gpigs? CSs, important things to know? TX?Trixacarus caviae is a ZOONOTIC!!!! mite which causes Intense pruritus, excoriation of back and shoulders, alopecia. It will be so puritic it will look like it is having seizures. recc tx is a LIME SULFUR DIP because some are resistant to ivermectin.
ddx for seizures in a gpig?Trixacarus caviae is a ZOONOTIC!!!! mite, which causes pruritus so bad it looks like seizures
*Cervical Lymphadenitis--> in who, caused by what?GPIG (the other C and L one is hams, so this one is pigs) Usually there is some sort of trauma to the oral mucosa (rough forage, malocclusion), or stress. At this point Streptococcus zooepidemicus (or S. moniliformis but this was less emphasized) sets in and soon there are Pus filled ventral cervical masses. septicemia and bronchopenumonia are possible.
what are safe choices of abx for gpigs?sulfas, Flouroquinolones, Chloramphenicol (DONT give flor instead of chlor), aminoglycosides (cefazolin parenterally)
where DONT you draw blood in a gpig?NOT THE JUG- have no neck
what's the prdominant part of a gpigs GI (whats their setup) and what's their natural flora?colon is 60% of the GI and they are coprophagic, main flora is lactobacillus-- meaning they are basically tiny hind-gut fermenting horses
Pregnancy Toxemia, happens in who what are the clinical signs?Gpigs, occurs in Primiparous (first time pregnant), obese sows, during the final 2 weeks of pregnancy-- obesity and fasting are the predisposing factors. There will be Abrupt onset anorexia, quit drinking, 24 hours prostrate and dyspneic,there will be severe hypoglycemia, an enlarged fatty liver and empty stomach, and DIC. TX is usually unrewarding-- PREVENTION IS KEY! good quality diet to prevent obesity, and avoid stresses in late pregnancy (so, your chin gets a clot on it, but DIRTY PIGS get TOXIC problems to more than just a chin)
basically the abx you shouldnt give hind-gut fermentors, and why?G+ flora, so penicillin, ampicillin, Chlortetracycline, tetracycline, Clindamycin, erythromycin, lincomycin all bad. Killing off their flora will lead to overtake with clostridium difficile
for who do you want a LARGE cage door?hamsters (to remove them safely)
**what are the clinical signs of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus? how do you dx and what must you do if the ___(WHICH ANIMAL?) is positive upon necropsy?Hamsters! a YOUNG hamster which has chronic wasting, subclinical infection, and MULTIORGAN inflammation. DX is PCR on necropsy, and you MUST THROW AWAY THE ENCLOSURE- ZOONOTIC
how much volume is a SAFE blood draw for a hamster?5.5 ml/kg.
which rodents gets Tyzzer's dz? who is more susceptible?rats/mice, hams and gerbils- gerbils are more susceptible
Tyzzer’s Disease is caused by what agent? when do hamsters usually get this dz?caused by Clostridium pilliforme (in a tizzy, take a pill. remember clostridium looks like a tennis racket). Happens in immunocompromised hams
limiting ridge at junction of eso and stomach in...?hamsters
**WHO IS A CARRIER OF BORDETELLA, AND WHATS IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT THIS? CSs?`hamsters are RESISTANT to it, but can be carriers, and it is ZOONOTIC, ESP TO CHILDREN. If they get it, CSs are tachypnea or dyspnea, purulent rhinitis, sticky eyelids, and a POOR prognosis
explain how hamster polyoma virus affects adults and young hams differently(1) ADULT: usually get Trichoepithelioma (hair follicle base tumor) (2) YOUNG: usually get Multicentric lymphoma
who has a smooth cerebrum?hamsters
who's prone to hyperadrenocortisism?hams (hamsters are hyper...because theyre tiny spastic rodents)
who will have a lowered PCV if you castrate them?hams
which rodent has a squamous forestomach where some fermentation can take place? (the little cows)hams
melanoma is the most common skin tumor of?hams (green eggs and black ham)
what is the safe amount for a blood draw for a hamster?0.5 ml is a safe amount to draw
Hymenolepis nana is aka? what's important to know about it? what are the clinical signs?aka dwarf tapeworm. IT IS ZOONOTIC!! CSs can range from benign, to intestinal obstruction and death if there is a heavy load. (direct or indirect lifestyle, CAN AUTOINFECT HUMANS)
Tyzzer's dz clinical signs? They appear generally ill- poor hair coat, depression, dehydration, diarrhea, death w/o signs. On necropsy you will see necrotic hepatic foci, with maybe intestinal lesions. (tx of supportive care and abx)--- gerbils main sign is just dropping dead
who is more susceptible to dysbiosis- hams or gerbils?Hams (bc of their proventriculus and such)
who's prone to dental caries (cavities)?hams
avoid feeding seeds to..hamsters ( will cause osteoporosis (seeds high in P and low in Ca) )
Proliferative Ileitis aka WET TAIL is caused by what in who? what body system is affected? what should you know about this agent?HAMSTERS (it's funny bc they barely have a tail) lawsonia intracellularis, causing DIARRHEA (GI) in any age ham. *there is POTENTIAL SPREAD to other species
**Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus--> what kinda virus causes this? who, which age does it affect? what's important to know about this?ARENAvirus (throw out the hamster arena ie cage) which causes a rare dz of the YOUNG hamster. IT IS ZOONOTIC, and THROW OUT THE CAGE
what should you know about hamster repro? (one big thing)TAKE OUT THE MALE. she will eat him and the babies otherwise
what's really important to know about hamsters before you start doing a necropsy?THEY HIBERNATE. They will look dead. were they out in the cold garage? make sure you check this. (i dont think we need to know, but the WBCs dec during hibernation)
when does a hams risk of neoplasia inc? what are the 4 most common neoplasms(based on location in body), in order from most to least?>2yrs, over 50% incidence of tumors. most common in order are: endocrine>lymphoreticular>dermatologic>GI (ELDG the eldger ham gets cancer)
DONT give these abx to hamspenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, vancomycin, clindamycin, cephalosporins, bacitracin, oral gentamicin, tylosin, and Dihydrostreptomycin, streptomycin. treatment is like for the gerbil- supportive care, and appropriate broad-spectrum abx
what can you give that will bind the toxins in enterotoxemia?Cholestyramine
tail slip is who?gerbils
who has a PERSISTANT thymus that doesnt involute?gerbil
who gets facial eczema, and how can you help prevent/treat it?gerbils get this. PREVENTION: sand bath, appropriate humidity (not too low!), avoid volatile wood shavings. TREAT: cleans face and give topical and/or systemic abx for 2* infxn
who has SUPER enlarged adrenal glands, and why?GERBILS- because they live in a super arid enviro, make lots of aldosterone to conserve salt and water
a client brings in a gerbil and says it's been having seizures- what should you know?Gerbils have a INHERITED, GENETIC problem where they have a Deficiency in glutamine synthetase. Because of this, they will start to have Spontaneous seizures which start at 2mo and RESOLVE AT 6mo!! usually Sudden stress, handling, new environment precipitate this problem, but early handling can help mitigate. No tx recc, and no last effect of sezure- they'll just go away after 6mo
4 abx good for gerbilsSulfa drugs, metronidazole, Flouroquinolones, Aminoglycosides (FAMS love gerbils, theyre so easy!)
who has a midventral marking gland? (gender diff? purpose?)Gerbils have one-- It has hormonal control, and is responsive to testosterone, which means its twice as large in males.
what are three contraindicated drugs in the gerbil??Streptomycin, Dihydrostreptomycin, procaine (Direct toxicity neuromuscular blockade) (Stone Dimple Pilots is a gerbil band)
If youre going to inject intraperitoneally into the gerbil, what must you do? ***INJECT IN THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE GERBIL TO AVOID THE CECUM, LIVER, AND SPLEEN
how much can you draw from a gerbil?o.8ml safely (gerbils can jump and do figure 8s)
which sp has gender blood differences, and what are the differences?gerbils! MALES=HIGHER. MCV is higher, Hb and Hct is higher. MCHC is higher. The total amount of leukocytes is higher, as well as lymphocytes. Their lymphocyte to heterophil ratio is higher also- 6.1:1 in males, and 3.2:1 in females <--almost double
who has an avascular retina, and why?sugar gliders, because they need superb night vision (avascular bc of large tepetum lucidum)
which two go into a hibernation/torpor type state?hibernation=hamster. torpor= sugarglider
if you have a SG in torpor, what can you do? what must you remember to do?If you put them in an incubator it will help raise their temperature up and they will come out of it. HOWEVER, remember to have food available for them because the problem was not enough food in the first place!!! there is a "glider booster" supplement you can get which has vitamins and minerals and glucose for them which you can give
who has their beans above the frank?sugar gliders-- because they kinda have a chloaca so it's farther back by the ass, which means the testes are above the penis
which animal will mutilate if left alone, and how might their mutilation present?SUGAR GLIDERS! will mutilate their tail, penis, limbs, scrotum, cannabalism of young, as well as aberrant b/h- polyphagia, polydipsia, coprophagy, pacing
what are some things you should keep in mind when performing a OHE (ovariohysterectomy) in SGs? (2)(1) the SG has TWO VAGINAS, AND TWO UTERI. you must remove both if you want to spay (2) the URETERS empty into the vaginas, so they sort of have a weird chloaca thing going on. DO NOT ACCIDENTALLY LIGATE THESE URETERS when doing a spay
how would you describe the GI of a SG?they eat a lot of Eucalyptus gum, so they have a short/simple GI with large cecum (kinda like hind-gut fermentors)
what is happening with wobbily hedgehog syndrome?this is a genetic disorder which causes progressive paralysis. It is similar to MS in humans. No tx.
what are the three very well developed muscles which act as a shield (with spines in it) that let hedgehogs pull themselves into a ball?frontodorsalis, caudodorsalis, panniculus carnosis orbicularis
who needs a smooth-sided cage?hedges- they'll keep running into corners
neoplasia--> hedges are little cancer magnets. what three cancers are they pretty prone to?SCC, mast cell, Lymphosarcoma
Integument dz-->what might cause quill loss in a hedge?MITES!! (Chorioptic, Sarcoptic, Caparinia tripilis)
you see a hedge produce frothy saliva, which they then lap onto their spines of the back/flank. are you worried?no this is anting/self anointing and it's normal. The toxins (if they ingested a toxic plant to make the saliva) might damage a potential attacker
who has acidic urine?hedgehogs (rub acid in your spine-wounds)
what two horrible zoonotic dzs are priaria dogs known for carrying?monkeypox and yersinea pestis (the pleague)
monkey pox and yersinea pestis are carried by who?pdogs
what are the two major causes of dyspnea in pdogs?(1) obesity (2) ODONTOMA--> this is a neoplasia of upper incisors tooth root. Possible dietary management related. Since they are obligate nasal breathers, and this extends into their nasal cavities, the only way to help them breathe is to Create new nasal stoma to manage the disease (basically bore a hole in their sinuses)
who gets odontomas and why is this use a problem?pdogs, obligate nose breathers and the tooth root tumor is invading the nasal spaces
how can monkey pox be spread?Contact or respiratory droplets
trigonal anal sac ducts?pdogs
LIFESPAN rats/mice1-3 years
LIFESPAN gerbils3-4 years (2-3 avg)
LIFESPAN G pigs5-6 years
LIFESPAN chinchillasavr. 10 years (can live well into teens)
LIFESPAN hamsters2 years
LIFESPAN sugar glidersmale 4yr female 5yr (CAPTIVITY 15yr)
LIFESPAN hedgehog5-8 yr
LIFESPAN prairie dog10yr