what is a rare type of hepatitis that HUMANS might get from bartonella?
are there chronic infections? how do they affect the dog? is there recurrence?
Chronic infections can be well tolerated for years, but can Manifest when stressed, at parturition or if co-infected
how helpful is blood/tissue culture for bartonella?
can you use PCR for bartonella dx?
when might you suspect bartonella on serology?
greater than a 1:64 titer
which stain can you use to visualize bartonella? WHEN can you use stain?
Visualization with Warthin-Starry silver stain (when acute)
which drugs (and how) to tx bartonella?
use Azithromycin PO q24 for 4-6 weeks. If unresponsive, use Rifampin. Can also use Doxy/Fluorquinolone Combo Tx. and Aminoglycosides if not responsive (will need in house ICU w/ frequent renal monitoring)
vector for hepatozoon CANIS? name of dz the canis sp causes?
Transmission by *******ingesting brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) --> causes Old World canine hepatozoonosis
vector for hepatozoon AMERICANUM? name of dz the americanum sp causes?
Transmission by ********ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum)--> causes American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH)
what do WBCs look like with a hepatozoon infxn?
can make your WBC go REALLY high- like higher than leukemia
how might the eyes be affected by hepatozoon?
where in the US do you find hepatozoon?
South East USA
where do the Gamonts of hepatozoon like to live?
Gamonts are found in circulating leukocytes of dogs
how might dogs become reinfected with hepatozoon (a way that doesnt involve any ticks or such)
Evidence suggests that dogs may become re-infected through the asexual reproduction of the merozoites, which may be associated with the waxing and waning signs.
6 clinical sings of hepatozoon?
Fever, weight loss, MM ATROPHY (they can encyst in mm she said), Mucopurulent ocular discharge, Generalized stiff gait and hindlimb paresis (bc stuff in their mms), *Extensive periosteal bone proliferation (NAVLE ?)
what is going on here?
*Extensive periosteal bone proliferation seen in hepatozoonosis
which stage in WBCs? which stage in MM?
which type of hepatozoon is easier to see on a blood slide?
Rarely able to visualize H.americanumgamonts on a stain, Better able to find H.canis
if the blood yields no results, what other tissue can you check for hepatozoon?
Skeletal muscle biopsy (biopsy the mm that's hurting them!)
which two tests arent super helpful for hepatozoon?
Serology (ELISA) not readily avaliable, there is PCR but its validation is questionable
what is the short (time wise) tx for hepatozoon?
Triple therapy for 2 weeks: Trimethoprim-sulfadiazine PO q 12, Clindamycin PO q 8, Pyrimethamine PO q 24....if not improved by end of 2 weeks, do for another 2 weeks.
can you use doxy to tx hepatozoon?
remember Trimethoprim-sulfadiazine side effects
KCS, black and tan dogs at higher risk, skin and blood dycriasias
what is the long (time wise) tx for hepatozoon?
Decoquinate PO q 12 mixed with food for 2 years (pig coccidiostat)
how common are hepatozoon relapses?
common-- asexual repro of meros in mm
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