Small Ani medicine- specific bacterial, mycoplasmal, parasitic, protozoal infxns

untimely's version from 2015-10-04 04:37

leptospriosis *zoonotic

Question Answer
what kind of organisms are leptospira?motile, filamentous spirochetes
which leptospira spp are included in the 2-way vx?L. interrogans cannicola, L. interrogans icterohemorrhagica
which leptospira spp are included in the 4-way vx? L. interrogans cannicola, L. interrogans icterohemorrhagica, L. interrogans pomona, L. kirschneri grippotyphosa
how many spp of lepto are pathogenic in dogs?at least 10
in dogs, which two organs develop highest level of infection and severe vasculitis?liver and kidney!!!
Why should you ALWAYS ALWAYS put lepto on R/O if the dog has concurrent liver and kidney signs?ZOONOTIC-- on R/o to protect staff
which types of dogs might be more predisposed to getting lepto?Male hunting and working dogs more common, maybe (around rodents more?)
which type of area is lepto more common in?Around wetlands, after heavy rains, poor sanitation (used to be rural only but now everywhere-- bc rodents everywhere)
how is lepto transmitted?being in the enviro which harbors lepto (wetlands/after heavy rains/poor sanitation areas), bites, ingestion, venereal and placental..... RODENT EXPOSURE!!!
can cats get lepto?can get it, but might not show C/S, can act as reservoir then tho-- hardjo-prajitnofound in shelter cats, reservoir/incidental hosts. Very mild clinical signs
4 major ways lepto affects the kidneys? (dzs)Interstitial Nephritis, Renal Vasculitis (further compromise RBF), ARF and CKD are common
is dialysis helpful for lepto?yeah, only really helpful for lepto and ethylene glycol tox
(obv there are general symptoms also) what are kidney C/S for lepto?PU/PD, Anuria or oliguria, Renomegaly+/-pain, Azotemia-57-90%, Pyuria/hematuria
liver C/s for lepto?Hepatomegaly, Hepatitis/fibrosis, Icterus, Elevated liver and muscle enzymes
does lepto affect the repro system?yes! can cause abortions!
blood/CV system c/s of lepto?Bleeding tendencies, Thrombocytopenia-53%, Leukopenia/leukocytosis, Azotemia-57-90%
resp system c/s of lepto?Interstitial to alveolar radiographic pattern, Coughing or dyspnea, acute resp distress syndrome (ARDS)
misc c/s which dont have to do with kidney, liver, repro, CV, resp systems?Anterior uveitis, Muscle or meningeal pain
(what's ARDS again?)vasculitis--> fluids leak--> drown in their lungs
should you culture lepto? which samples do you culture from?need a special lab to culture- send in Urine, blood, tissues
how are you able to microscopically visualize lepto?Dark field or phase-contrast microscopy
how would you stain lepto for histopath? which histopath techniques do you use?Silver staining, Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH)
which types of agglutination tests can you use to dx lepto?microscopic agglutination test (MAT) most common, Latex agglutination test
what samples would you want to PCR to dx lepto?Urine, blood, tissues
3 most common ways to dx lepto?MAT (microscopic agglutination test), PCR, Clinical signs and response to therapy
how would you want to conduct fluid therapy on a lepto pt- and why?AGGRESSIVE! on top of the vomiting/diarrhea it causes, there is a risk of acute renal failure due to dec blood flow to kidney--> kidney dying, waste products building up--> anuria. So try to turn acute anuric into polyuric renal failures (bc then chronic condition and you can treat them for years-- if not peeing, can only tx for a few hrs before dead)
which drug do you use to tx the acute bacteremic phase? what other time might you use this tx?Ampicillin IV, can also use if the pt is vomiting and can’t handle Doxy
if not in the acute bacteremic phase, what would you use to tx lepto? how long do you tx??Doxycycline- PO q12h for 14 days....Treat 2 weeks post clinical signs (starting on day 1)
what is a specific kidney treatment which is very helpful for lepto?hemodialysis
which abx regimen is NOT reccomended? why?Concurrent enrofloxacin/BaytrilNOT recommended- Increases antibiotic resistance
what should you do if the lepto animal has housemates?TX housemates Because of coincedental exposure (doxy)
you should FREQUENTLY monitor which parameters if the pt has lepto?Body weight, resprate, lung sounds, BP, CVP’s (central venous pressure)
why do you want to monitor lung sounds?for ARDS (vasculitis-->drowning in lungs)
1 Kg is how much fluid?1L
how often do you wanna take PCV and chem on a lepto pt youre monitoring? CBC?PCV and CHEM: q24h at a minimum. CBC: q48h
how can you monitor the ins and outs?IV fluids and indwelling urinary catheterization (she likes indwelling caths in bc can monitor fluids (see if you can push more) and also zoonotic- keep that crap contained)
is lepto easily disinfected?bleach and iodine kills it, Desiccation, sunlight, and freezing inactivate
how/where do you want to house the lepto pt?Limit patient movement around the hospital, issue warning labels, house in LOW TRAFFIC areas on bottom row cages.
how does the vx work? what are the titers like?Prevent serovar SPECIFIC disease and shedding. Titers < 12 months (some dogs fail to seroconvert, and vx is Not cross protective between serovars)
what is the vx schedule like for the 4-way lepto vx?2 initial vaccinations 3 weeks apart***(no messing around, not late, exactly 3wk!), Then yearly or every 6 months if in endemic area and exposure risk is high
If you have mult lepto serovars, how do you know which is the infective one? what is a serovar you WOULDNT consider sig? what would cause a false pos?Highest serovar is "usually" the infective one (lots of cross-reactivity). < 4 fold differences typically not significantly different. note that vx could cause pos results to mult serovars! (Vaccine titers "usually" <1:400)


Question Answer
what kinda organisms are mycoplasmas? what makes them unique?Wall-less bacteria! Obligate intracellular organisms
what are the mycoplasmas which affect felines? (3)Mycoplasma haemofelis, Candidatus M. haemominutum, Candidatus M. Turicensis
what are the mycoplasmas which affect canines?M. haemocanis
mycoplasma has cell tropism for?RBC
how do you dx mycoplasma?blood smear
what is presentation of infection with myocoplasma usually like in felines?can be acute or chronic
what are clinical signs like in cats? who is more likely to get cs?variable-- worsen with stress. Younger cats more likely to show CS (Anemia, Tachypnea, Depression, Weakness, Lethargy, Weight loss, Pale MM, Dehydration, IF rapid RBC lysis then icterus)
what are clinical signs like in dogs? who is more likely to get cs?dogs may or may not even have CS. More likely if Splenectomized or Immunosuppressed
what is important to know about tx of mycoplasmas?tx might not clear the organisms
how do you tx DOG for myco? CATS? what might you want to consider for both?DOGS: Doxycycline. CATS: Marbofloxacin/pradofloxacin (not doxy bc stricture thing). bOTH: Consider pred/prednisolone if 2* IMHA develops


Question Answer
causative agent? what kinda organism is it?T. gondii, Coccidian parasite
who is suseptible to T. gondii? who is at RISK?All warm blooded animals are susceptible... Any immunocompromised animal at risk
definitive hosts of T gondii?felids
where does toxo like to encyst and mature?mm
when is toxo infective? when is it not? how do you get it?cat poop-- if you clean it immediately, the toxo hasn't had enough time to mature in the outside world yet to be infective
what are USUALLY the cs of cats with toxo? what are the exceptions?USUALLY self limiting small bowel diarrhea. However, Kittens infected transplacentally or lactationally often Still born or die pre weaning--> Hepatic, respiratory, CNS and ocular signs common. Also more severe clinical signs in immunosuppressed cats (Other infections or from glucocorticoid therapy)
what are the main CS of DOGS with toxo? what situation might make CS worse?Pulmonary and GI signs, also CNS and musculoskeletal signs can be worse in older dogs. (Seizures, paresis, paralysis, Abnormal gait, muscle wasting or stiffness)
what does the CBC look like of an animal with toxo?NR anemia, neutrophilic leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and eosinophilia (so like..everything up but RBC down)
what does chem look like on toxo pt?Hypoalbuminemia and elevated liver enzymes
two tests you can use to dx toxo?serology (AB TEST), and fecal ID
tx for toxo?clindamycin
cats usually get toxo...eating mice

neospora caninum

Question Answer
what kinda organism is neospora caninum?Apicomplexan protozoan
what are CS like for N. caninum?similar to toxo- but Musculoskeletal and CNS signs predominate (more on this in diff card)
what are CS like for a dog LESS than 6mo?Polymyositis (chronic inflammation of the muscles), radiculitis (Radiculitis or radicular pain is transferred pain that is “radiated” along the path of a nerve due to pressure on the nerve root at its connection to the spinal column), encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the brain and spinal cord)
what are clinical signs like for dog GREATER THAN 6mo?LMN flaccid paralysis, Myositis (inflammation and degeneration of muscle tissue)
the presentation/hx for a dog with N. caninum will prolly sound like.."dog with myositis that lives near cows"
dogs usually get N. caninum...eating cow placenta/carcass
what are the CNS clinical signs of N. caninum?Para/tetraparesis, ataxia, head tilt, seizures, behavior changes, blindness, Horner’s, trigeminal neuropathy
what are the systemic clinical signs of N. caninum like?Fever, dyspnea, cough, arrhythmias, ulcerative skin lesions, regurgitation and esophageal disease, vomiting and icterus
what are you looking for with serology? which tests?Ab test- IFA, ELISA
4 ways/tests to dx N. caninum?serology, fecal float, Cytology of aspirates or smears of tissue or fluids, histopath
what is the tx drugs for N caninum? what is important to know about how they work?Clindamycin, sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine (can be used alone OR in combination). However, it is important to note it doesnt elim the infection.
who responds better to tx? who not so much?Older pups and adults respond better to treatment. Neonates With muscle contracture will have poor response.
2 major ways to help prevent?(1) selective breeding (can be transplacental) (2) NO raw diets-- ESP offal, ESP on cattle farms