Small Ani. Medicine- Feline viral dzs 1

untimely's version from 2015-10-03 20:38

Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV)

Question Answer
is this absoluely death sentence dz?not necessarily death sentence-- attack immune system so get other shit which makes them sick
how serious is this dz?Responsible for most disease related deaths and more clinical syndromes in pet cats
what kinda virus is the feline leukemia virus?retrovirus
(not sure if important) why are FLV cats prone to cancer?retrovirus causes FLV, which means the virus inserts its genes into the cats genes,which can disrupt oncognes-->cancer
how is FeLV spread?cat to cat via salivary glands, through Grooming, food bowls/litter boxes, fighting and biting
mean survival time of FeLV cats?MST 2.4 years vs. 6 years in control cats (In closed households with endemic FeLV. With proper care can live much longer and may die of old age)
explain the whole cascade chain of how FeLV works, and include the weird paths it can takecat is exposed via saliva of infected cat. The cat can either have complete virus elimination and be a regressor cat with Abs, or the cat gets a transient viremia. After about 3 weeks, the transiently viremic cat becomes viremic. the viremic cat can either just at this point get a latent infection (and become a regressor cat), or in 3-13 weeks the viremic cat is permanantly viremic and is immunocompromised, 2ry infection, tumors, and eventually becomes a dead cat. **note: the latent infection cat can either become a regressor cat, or, if stress or immunosuppression occur, can become permanantly viremic again
how does FeLV affect the immune system? sequale to this?can cause IMMUNOSUPPRESSION- this often leads to co-infections with stuff like FIP, FIV, URTI (upper resp tract infxn), hemotropic mycoplasmas, stomatitis. ALSO can cause IMMUNE MEDIATED DZ
how does FeLV affect the blood?Anemia, Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, Leukemia and Myeloproliferative dz (can destroy a single line, or all lines)
What's the trigger word tumor with a sick cat that will make you think FeLV?LYMPHOMA!!!!!!!!!!
what problem/dz might FeLV cause in kittens?Fading kitten syndrome
how does FelV affect the nervous system?can have neuropathies
how does FeLV affect the repro system?can cause ABORTIONS, fading kitten syndrome (any young kitten getting a dz can lead to fading kitten syndrome, not FeLV specific)
how does FeLV affect body temp?usually NOT FEBRILE (maybe if coinfection)
what determines what clinical signs a cat will get from an FeLV infection?you can't predict this! different virus subtypes, diff virulence, diff signs, if the immune response of the infected cat was adequate or not
infection clinical signs can be summarized into what 4 major groups?malignancy, myelosuppression, immunosuppression, "other"(glom.nephritis, repro disorders, osteochondromas)
why does FeLV carry a risk of causing renal dz?any chronic antigen causing thing--> Ab production---> complexes--> deposits--> renal dz
**do you test Antigen or Ab for FeLV?ANTIGEN
does the FeLV test have cross reactions? If so, what type? is an antigen test, so no xrection from maternal antibodies, vaccines nor exposure
how long till testing positive for FeLV? (adults? kittens?)adults usually test positive within a week. BUT, kittens may take weeks or months to test positive (so you really gotta retest the kittens)
which are the common tests for FeLV, what is the most accurate?Common: ELISA snap and Direct FA. Accurate: PCR (helpful for latent infects)
*****************WHAT ARE WE DETECTING ON THE FeLV TEST????p27 core protein
When do you want to retest for FeLV?6 weeks after 1st+ --> 10 weeks if + after 6 weeks
What is treatment like for FeLV hourseholds?Isolation of infected cats from uninfected, Vaccinate uninfected, clean often, environmentally labile
Why is it really ideal to only have one cat if your cat is FeLV positive?immunocompromised- so even if the other cat is also FeLV, they are new so they could be dragging in new dzs which can get the cat sick
treatment of FeLV in individual cat households?Should be confined indoors, Good nutrition and husbandry, Semiannual vet visits
why do you want to confine the FeLV cat to indoors?Prevent spreading and protection against other comorbidities
how do you want to provide good nutrition to the FeLV cat? Good husbandry?Nutrition: Avoid raw foods. Husbandry: Neuter, PerioperativeABX for dentals/surgeries
why do you want to neuter FeLV+ cats?dont want them roaming around
how often do you want the FeLV cat to go to the vet, and what do you want done there?TWICE a year instead of once a year. You want a full PE, CBC/CHEM/UA/UC/fecal yearly or if any issues, and you want the vaccinated!!
what should you keep in mind when vaccinating a FeLV cat?Avoid MLV(modified live vx), May have to INC frequency as they cannot mount an effective immune response
if there are infections in the immunocompromised cat, what will their treatment be like?May need longer courses of treatment
what drugs should you AVOID when trying to treat secondary infections in the FeLV cat?AVOID glucocorticoids/immunosuppressants
what should you know about treating the tumors which can develop from an FeLV infection?you should confirm type, as many are responsive to therapy. BUT, chemo can suppress bone marrow further so Owners must monitor for 2infections. Consider abx during chemo
how do you go about treating hematologic disorders of the FeLV cat?Commonly cyclic so may need: (1) Transfusions (2) fHuEPO (feline human recombinnant erythropoeitin) (3) filgrastim(G-CSF) (G- colony stimulating factor for granulocytes)
what is fHuEPO? what's it used for? what are its cautions?(feline human recombinnant erythropoeitin) look out for immune mediated things because its from a human- because of this risk, don't consider trying this until PCV is like 8 or 10.
when would you use filgrastim(G-CSF)?if neutropenia (granulocyte colony stimulating factor)
how effective are Antivirals/immunomodulators for FeLV? which types can we use?Non proven to be effective yet.. but can try (1) Zidovudine/AZT + other HIV drugs (2) IFN alpha-human (Promising but antibody formation) (3) IFN omega-feline (not FDA approved…yet?)
Do you want to vx the cat that's already positive for FeLV?yes! Limit exposure to other cats. (Actually maybe no)
what kinda FeLV vx's are there? where(and why where) do you vx the cats?Subcutaneous or transdermal vx. you want to do it in the LEFT HIND, and you want to do it LOW!!!! BELOW THE HOCK!!! Why low? because INJECTION related sarcomas (not vaccination related, theory is that it's the needle tract and not the injection that's causing the prob- prolif of fibroblasts along needle tract) can happen and are super malig so would want to be below the hock so the margin is far away enough so when you need to amputate the leg, you can feel confident you got it all

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)

Question Answer
what kinda virus?lentivirus (probably good enough to know it's a retrovirus)
why is prevalence of FIV higher in males?they are more likely to be aggressive and bite/fight
main problem that FIV causes?Progressive dysfunction of normal immune function!!
how long do cats have FIV?cats are persistently infected- Do not recover +/-severity of clinical signs
how is FIV transmitted?Saliva and blood (usually bites) (gooming is felv, fiv needs scratch or bite)
in general, what are clinical signs like for FIV?Non specific, ANY system. Dependant on many host and virus factors-- often leads to opportunistic infections
clinical signs for FIV are usually non-specific- what is the exception?Exception in neurologic dz with acute FIV (rare neuro dz)
After virus is innoculated, where does it go and what does it do?infects B-lymphocytes/T-lymphocytes/microphages--> leads to progressive immune dysfunction (due to dec CD4 cells and cytokine alterations). It also uses to the blood cells to disseminate, going to the CNS (altered neuronal metabolism, neuronal tox leading to bh changes) and going to the lymphoid organs. This propagates as viremia, where you then see the virus specific/cell mediated/humora immunity and there is suppression by non-specific CD8 cell factors, resulting in continuous, low-level virus production--> progressive immune dysfunction (more of it), as well as opportunistic infections, neoplasia, wasting (the more the immune system fails)
what might the blood population look like with an FIV cat?various cytopenias, along with Polyclonal Gammopathies (inc in immunoglobulins of all diff kinds)
what is a common cilnical sign FIV cats can get?stomatitis
what might necropsy findings look like for a FIV cat?....could be like, anything. (lymph, thymus, GI, liver, bone marrow, kidney, CNS, lung, mm...)
***********what are we testing for (specifically with our tests)p24!!! (27 is FeLV)
about how long does it take a cat to test positive?apprx 60 days to seroconvert (some delayed)
is a FIV test more specific or more sensitive?Highly sensitive and specific! Negative result highly reliable, Some false +
are we testing for Ab or Ag in FIV?FIV= TESTING FOR ANTIBODY (FeLV testing for antigen)
will the vx x-react with the test for FIV?YES- because the test tests for Ab, not Ag
why are we cool with the FIV test testing for Ab and not Ag?cats with FIV have it for life- they are persistently infected. So if they were exposed, they still have it
If you are worried about the FIV test being a false positive, what do you do?Retest with ELISA, virus culture, (western blot, IFA). **Kittens up to 6 months can have maternal antibodies! Rare for dam to infect kittens, but you still need to test them!
would you recc the FIV vx?not a super good vx and changes test result...doesn't prevent dz, so not recc vx for this dz
how will the lifespan of the cat be affected by FIV?Lifespan can be normal
is there any specific treatment for FIV?nope
how should you go about tx opportunistic infections in the FIV cat? (what should you avoid?)Treat as needed- Avoid glucocorticoidsif possible
can you use antiretrovirals in cats?Under study currently(there are a lot of antivirals/immunomodulators) They tried HIV cocktails but Cats tend to have more severe side effects. AZT doses available for cats but with variable efficacy (Better for neuro manifestations). consider Parenteral fIFN-omega
what is the Only thing that has proven longer MST(mean survival time) in FIV cats?being strictly indoors
how often do you want to take a FIV cat to the vet, and why?Semi annual (2x/yr) veterinary visits. To catch 2diseases faster
why do you want to neuter your FIV cat, and what precautions must you take for this?neutering dec likelihood of cat wanting to roam/fight. Perioperative abx will be necessary to help dec risk of 2ry infection
will it matter if you clean the environment the cat lives in well?YES! Environmentally labile virus
do you want to vx the FIV cat?ONLY core vx, and no Modified live. (the FIV vx is controversial, prolly better to not have)
how can you help prevent FIV?ID infected cats and segregate. She doesn't like the Vx- it's controversial, causes them to be Ab+ (false positive on the test), and Diverse viral isolates allow immune evasion (so protection prolly not great)