Small Ani. Medicine- Canine viral dzs

untimely's version from 2015-10-04 00:42

Canine viral enteritis

Question Answer
what are the two causative agents of canine viral enteritis?parvovirus and coronavirus
what part of the intestine does parvo attack? corona?Parvo: the CRYPTS. Corona: the TIPS of the vili
based on where they have affinity, which has worse diarrhea- and why? (parvo vs corona)parvo attacks the CRYPTS where the new stems cells are growing to try to replace the old cells in the tips of the villi.. which means it's worse and lasts longer
how is parvovirus transmitted? (via what route, how long in enviro?)Fecal-oral route--- can come from fomite or enviro contamination too.
how stable is parvo in the enviro? is it easily disinfected? It is HIGHLY environmentally stable (and highly contagious) but EASILY disinfected with bleach!
how long after exposure do signs of parvo begin?4-7d
what is the most common age of dogs to get parvo?MOST are <6mo, the OLDEST a dog has ever been to contract parvo was a YOUNG DOG dz
which 5 breeds of dogs seem to be more susceptible to parvo?GSD, Labs, Staffordshire terriers, Rottweilers & Dobermans more susceptible (but you still vacc them, obv!!)
what are the predilection sites of parvo?RAPIDLY GROWING CELLS!! so GI, bone marrow, and myocardium
what are the clinical signs of parvo?(remember-- attack GI, BM, and myocardium) anorexia/depression/fever vomiting, diarrhea (+/- blood), dehydration, +/- icterus, +/- CNS signs
how does parvo affect the CBC? (1)SEVERE leukoPENIA
how does parvo affect the chem panel?electrolyte imbalances(bc diarrhea), renal azotemia ( renal bc less blood and less blood volume leading to tissue damage, and prerenal, due to dehydration), ↑ bilirubin, ALT, ALP (She said high ALP bc puppy is growing also...high liver values because there is loss of blood/loss of blood volume--> less blood to liver--> liver damage.)
how does parvo appear on rads?gas and fluid distention in GIT
how can you test for parvo?(1) ELISA for fecal excretion is definitive, but false +/- possible. (2) Slide agglutination tests (3) PCR
what's CPV-2?canine parvo virus 2 (so...parvo)
If you are unsure if this puppy has parvo, where can you put them?put them in cat iso....because if that puppy DIDN'T have parvo and you put him in the parvo ward, he sure does now
if you have a puppy with parvo coming into the clinic, first thing you do?ISOLATE!!! HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS VIRUS!!
what 2 kinds of drugs do you want to tx parvo with? (what is a maybe drug?)(1) antiemetics (its ok, we know what's causing it) (2) antibiotics ( (3) maybe oseltamivir (tamiflu) an antiviral)
how do you wanna give abx to parvopup? exs of abx to give?want to give IV because wont work in GI, it is dzed. Penicillins would work (like ampicillin, sulbactam...) and so would enroflocaxin (sure, it can cause cartilage problems, but parvo causes death)
WHY do we want to give abx with parvo?BACTERIAL TRANSLOCATION due to GI dz
do you want to try to feed a parvopup?YES, feeding ASAP
what kinda fluids would you want to give parvopup?first off, LOTS of fluids, you MAYBE want to add KCl or dextrose. Also consider transfusion if merited
does parvo have a vx?YES! there is a killed and MLV (obv MLV has better protection)

infectious canine hepatitis (ICH)

Question Answer
what causes ICH?Canine adenovirus, CAV-1 (THIS IS DIFF FROM CAV-2 DONT CONFUSE THEM)
does ICH last in the enviro? can it be disinfected?YES-- AN EXTREMELY LONG TIME. It is also RESISTANT TO DISINFECTION :(
what is the route of transmission for ICH? through what means/objections/secretions/whatever is it spread?ORONASAL route of transmission, it is shed in ALL SECRETIONS
how long is ICH shed for? from where?Shed for 6-9 months in urine post recovery (IF they live..which isnt common)
how long is the peracute phase?death within hours
how long is the acute phase?5-7 day course
which two organ systems are often targeted by ICH (CAV2) and have deadly results?LIVER AND KIDNEY
what are the acute signs of ICH?Transient pyrexia, Vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, corneal edema (blue eye) and other eye probs (diff card), HEPATIC AND RENAL INJURY (often fatal), CNS signs (diff card), DIC
what are various EYE problems which can be caused by ICH (CAV1)?corneal edema (blue eye) Anterior uveitis, blepharospasm, photophobia
what are some CNS signs caused by ICH (CAV1)?Hepatic encephalopathy, hypoglycemia or non-suppurative encephalitis
how might ICH/CAV1 affect the blood? and why?Can cause DIC, and then can't clot after that because the liver is dzed and cant make the new clotting factors
how do you tx ICH?SUPPORTIVE care... tx based on the symptoms presented (they are variable depending on system affected) and provide fluids + dextrose
is there a vx for ICH?YES!! (1) MLV (2) CAV-2 vaccine provides cross protection without reaction!!!
why should you note the ICH vx to owners?perfect example of... "dog gets vx, nothing happens. Dog doesnt get vx, dog dies" (It has been effectively controlled through vaccination) (esp those asshole breeders that say novascotia duck retrievers shouldn't get any vx)
***WHAT ARE THE CORE CANINE VXs??Rabies, distemper, parvovirus, canine adenovirus-2

canine distemper

Question Answer
causative agent of canine distemper?distempervirus
how is the distemper virus spread?Virus shed in body secretions and is usually spread via aerosol.
who is more likely to get distemper?young dogs kept in groups
how long does virus shedding last?Virus shedding ceases 1-2 weeks post-recovery
how well does distemper last in the environment?Virus is labile surviving hrs to days only
what are the main body systems affected by distemper? (5) (obv lethargy, anorexia, fever..)(1) RESP system (2) EYES (3) SKIN (4) GI (5) CNS
what are the resp signs of distemper?rhinitis, resp signs
eye signs of distemper?Conjunctivitis, Chorioretinitis, Keratoconjunctivitis (optic neuritis listed later)
skin signs of distemper?Callusing of the nose and foot pads (this symptom is usually when older dogs get it)
GI signs of distemper?vomiting/diarrhea
CNS signs of distemper?Seizures, ataxia, myoclonus..or ANY others...also Acute fatal encephalitis of neonates, Older dogs leukoencephalomyelitis
how might you be able to tell distemper seizures from epilepsy?first off, epilepsy usually starts around 6 months. So if the puppy is younger than that, prolly distemper. There IS congenital epilepsy, but more often PUPPIES=INFECTIOUS DZs
what does the CBC look like with distemper?Lymphopenia then neutrophilia
how might distemper appear on rads?MAYBE see signs of pneumonia (radio opaque lesions, possible plural effusion)
since there are CNS signs, do you want to do a tap? what would you see?a neurologist should really be doing it, not a general practitioner. However, youd see inc protein and CDV Ab
how might infected cells appear?intracytoplasmicviral inclusion
if the virus isolation is neg for CDV, should you rule it out?NO
what might serology look like in a CDV dog?rising titer, CDV-specific IgM titer, only suggestive
what is important to know about the development of CNS signs with CDV?they can develop ANY TIME after infection-- if they were infected at 6mo, can get neuro signs at 10yo (such as Permanent Myoclonus)
do you want to isolate CDV dogs?YES
would you give abx for CDV?Yes (bacterial translocation due to GI issues)
should you feed the distemper dog?NPO if vomiting
what vitamins might help with tx of distemper? why?B-vitamins, good for brain health (distemper can cross BBB), also distemper causes gut dz so you are losing all your B-vit so supplement for that.
if the dog has distemper, you should ALWAYS monitor for...quality of life (QOL)
would you want to give glucocorticoids? why?Maybe. Not sure if works, but might help with tx of optic neuritis, and cerebral edema
is there a vx for distemper?YES. MLV
*what is the vx regimen for distemper?Vaccinate starting at 6-8 weeks then q 2-4 wks until 14-16 wks (so like 3ish times at least). THEN, Booster in 1 yr then q 1-3 yr depending on risk
can you vx you puppies with maternal Abs for distemper?No... but you CAN For puppies 4-10 weeks can use Measles vaccine (doesn’t interfere with maternal immunity)
***WHAT ARE THE CORE CANINE VXs??Rabies, distemper, parvovirus, canine adenovirus-2