Small Ani. Med- Derm exam (Lecture 1)

drraythe's version from 2017-09-11 22:59

one or two intro remarks, primary vs secondary, definitions of lesions

Question Answer
along with skin surface, what other parts of the body are part of the derm exam?don't forget external ear canals and mucous membranes!
what is to epilate?hair plucks out/comes out easily
what might the sex of the animal have to do with derm diseases?hormonal dzs
explain the pruritus score and what the numbers mean10 is non-stop scratching 0 is normal itchyness (once in a while scratching) (pets are never itch free)
Primary, secondary, or both-- Macule / patchPrimary
Primary, secondary, or both-- Papule Primary
Primary, secondary, or both-- PlaquePrimary
Primary, secondary, or both-- PustulePrimary
Primary, secondary, or both-- Vesicle or bullaPrimary
Primary, secondary, or both-- WhealPrimary
Primary, secondary, or both-- NodulePrimary
Primary, secondary, or both-- TumourPrimary
Primary, secondary, or both-- ErythemaPrimary
Primary, secondary, or both-- Epidermal collaretteSecondary
Primary, secondary, or both-- ErosionSecondary
Primary, secondary, or both-- UlcerationSecondary
Primary, secondary, or both-- ExcoriationSecondary
Primary, secondary, or both-- LichenificationSecondary
Primary, secondary, or both-- ScarSecondary
Primary, secondary, or both-- FissureSecondary
Primary, secondary, or both-- Alopeciaboth
Primary, secondary, or both-- Scaleboth
Primary, secondary, or both-- Follicular castboth
Primary, secondary, or both-- Crustboth
Primary, secondary, or both-- Comedoneboth
Primary, secondary, or both-- Pigmentary abnormalities/ changesboth
what is a Macule?Flat, circumscribed area, up to 1 cm in diameter, characterized by a change in the colour of the skin: Erythematous, Hyperpigmented (melanotic), Haemorrhagic
what is a patch?same as a macule, but diameter > 1 cm (Flat, circumscribed area, up to 1 cm in diameter, characterized by a change in the colour of the skin: Erythematous, Hyperpigmented (melanotic), Haemorrhagic)
what is a papule?Small solid elevation of the skin up to 1 cm in diameter. Can be Normal colour, erythematous, hyperpigmented, crusted, eroded...(pic: dorsum of cat that has been barbering herself. erythematous papules (some crusted and some eroded) )
what is a plaque?Coalescing papules (papule is Small solid elevation of the skin up to 1 cm in diameter)
what is a pustule?Small elevation of the epidermis which is filled with pus. They are Fragile and transient. They can be Follicular/Non-follicular/Pan-follicular
what is this? This is a FOLLICULAR pustule, because there is pus but also a hair is coming right out of it
what is this? This is a PANFOLLICULAR pustule, pus is including hair follicles and non-hair follicle areas (classic sign of pemphigus foliaceus)
what is a vesicle?Small elevation of the skin which is filled with clear fluid. They are fragile and transient.
what are bullae (a bulla)?same as a vesicle, but diameter > 1cm (vesicle: Small elevation of the skin which is filled with clear fluid)
what is a wheal?aka a hive. Well circumscribed, raised lesion consisting of dermal edema. Usually erythematous, with Variable shape and size. They are Transient (appears and disappears in minutes or hours) and Never appears in the same spot twice. (A bunch of wheals- urticaria)
what is a Nodule/tumour?Solid elevation greater than 1 cm in diameter. They have Variable depth (epidermal, epidermal-dermal, dermal, subcutaneous) and attachment to underlying tissues. They can be Inflammatory or neoplastic (she said she wouldn't call an inflammatory nodule a tumor tho)
what is Erythema?“Redness” of the skin (erythematous not erythemic!). Can be Generalized or patchy
what is diascopy, what is it done for?take glass slide and put on skin with a little pressure-- if turns white, that's blanching. If the lesion blanches, that means it is erythema and not hemorrhage.
what is a Epidermal Collarette?Ring of lifting keratin in a centripetal manner. Represents a ruptured pustule or vesicle (she says classic sign of a bact thing)
what is an Erosion / Ulcer? (what's the diff between the two?)Defect in the epidermis. There can be Variable depth, shape, bleeding. Erosion is when the defect extends into the epidermis only. Ulcer is when defect extends past the basement membrane into the dermis
what is excoriation?self-induced erosion
what is Lichenification?Thickening of the skin causing “wrinkles” or “elephant skin." Usually due to chronic trauma (pruritus) and inflammation. More frequent in the glabrous regions. Often accompanied by hyperpigmentation
what is glabrous?hairless (naturally, not alopecia)
what is a scar?Area of fibrous tissue that has replaced damaged dermis or subcutaneous tissue. Most scars in dogs and cats are alopecic, atrophic and hypopigmented
what is Alopecia? what are the different classifications of it?Lack of hair where it is normally present. Can be: Complete alopecia, Partial alopecia (due to reduction of number and/or length of hairs), and Patchy alopecia (multifocal areas of hair loss)
what's color dilution alopecia?animal gets alopecia where there is dilute hair coat. Only a prob in "dilute" breeds (yorkies, weimaraners, etc)
what is a scale?aka dandruff. Loose fragment of stratum corneum visible to the naked eye. Variable size, color, consistency
what is a Follicular cast?Plug of keratinaceous debris. Adherent to the base of the hair shaft(s).
what is a crust?Accumulation of dried exudate, blood, cells (epithelial and inflammatory), hairs, adhered to the skin. The underlying skin is excoriated/ eroded/ ulcerated. Variable color. (a scab is a hemorrhagic crust, but don't say scab, that's not a medical word)
what is a Comedone?Dilated hair follicle, which appears full of keratinaceous material. aka "blackhead"
what is Leukoderma?white skin
what is Leukotrichia?complete loss of pigment in hair, white hair