Small Ani. Med 2- Vomiting and Diarrhea 2

wilsbach's version from 2016-02-26 19:43

LArge intestine diarrhea

Question Answer
DD’s large intestinal diarrhea without faecal stasis (4 categories)(1) Infections: parasites:giardia, whip, tritrichomonas, Bacteria: clostridium, Histiocytic, Ulcerative colitis (Boxer), Fungal infection (2) Diet: fibre responsive, dietary intolerance (3) IBD (4) colitis
DD’s large intestinal diarrhea WITH Fecal stasis (5)(1) perineal hernia (2) pressure from outside (3) Colon/rectum tumor (4) Stricture colon/rectum (5) pelvic inflammation
Histoplasmosis--> where (geographically) so you see this? how are dogs and cats affected differently by this?location: Southeastern states / Texas "gulf states".... CATS tend to get the respiratory form, DOGS tend to get the intestinal form ....other systems can be affected, such as Eyes, respiratory, LN
what kinda diarrhea does histoplasma cause?LARGE BOWEL diarrhea. Will see weight loss...+/- SI involvement (mostly dogs, cats are resp) ("must more histo to be done in the LARGER bowel")
how is the mucosa affected (how would you histo classify it) by histoplasma? Diffuse, severe, granulomatous, ulcerative mucosal disease.. you will see Melena and hematochezia
why is there ascites with histoplasma infxn?Bc protein loss (GI bleeding)
how do you dx histoplasma? Cytology/histology on rectal scrapes, abdominal taps if ascites present...there is also a Urine Ag test
how do you tx histoplasma?Itraconazole for 4-6 months
what is Prototheca? where do you see this?RARE Dz-- this is a Algae (P. zopfi most common), and it likes a warm and moist climate
which body systems are most affected by prototheca? IS there any breed dispositions? Skin, colon, eyes. Collies overrepresented
is histo large or small bowel?large
is prototheca small or large bowel?large (colon)
what is the effect of prototheca on the GI mucosa?causes colitis! Severe, necrotizing, ulcerative, severe hematochezia
how do you dx prototheca?Cytology/histology
how do you tx prototheca, what is the prog?can tx with Liposomal amphotericin B, but RENAL FAILURE COMMON with this tx. Can consider: +/- itraconazole/fluconazole, +/- terbinafine. POOR prog.
what is diagnostic therapy for large intestine diarrhea?fenbendazole for 3-5 days, possibly metronidazole/tylosin

Patho-physiology classification of diarrhea

Question Answer
4 possibilities of diff pathophys classifications of diarrhea?Osmotic, Secretory, Permeability, motility
Osmotic diarrhea-- what is this/what is happening, and what is it often caused by?caused by an inc of osmotically active substances in the feces, drawing water into the intestines/retaining it there. Secondary to maldigestion/malabsorption
3 main dietary causes of osmotic diarrhea? overeating, excessive carbohydrates, excessive fats (EPI patient)
explain the "origin" (ie causative lesions) associated with osmotic diarrhea?Villus lesions, Villus atrophy, Bacterial overgrowth, Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency EPI
EPI causes what kinda diarrhea?OSMOTIC
will fasting help an osmotic diarrhea?YES!
Secretory diarrhea can be caused by what 4 things?Enterotoxins (bacteria), hydroxylated fatty acids, conjugated bile acids, gastrointestinal hormones (CCK, VIP)
will fasting help a secretory diarrhea?NO
Increased permeability diarrhea happens why? examples of what causes this?happens bc of Leakage of tight junctions. This can be due to Epithelial lesions, Ischemia, portal hypertension, or dysfunctional tight junctions
will fasting help inc permeability diarrhea?NO!
which type of diarrhea will cause high energy and high protein loss?inc permeability
Dysmotility diarrhea can be caused by what things? Inflammation, Infection (parasites), HYPERTHYROIDISM, Neoplasia, Dysautonomia, Electrolyte imbalance
which endocrine disorder can cause dysmotility diarrhea?hyperthyroidism (just hyperactivates everything)