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Skeletal

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baejuhyeoned's version from 2018-02-19 19:46

Section 1

Question Answer
206How many bones?
80Axial - how many bones?
126Appendicular - how many bones?
1) Provide points of attachments for muscles  2) Protect and support softer underlying tissues  3) House blood producing cells  4) Store inorganic salts  5) Contain passage ways for blood vessels and nerves Five functions of the Skeletal System:
(1) Osseous Tissue, (2) Blood Vessels, (3) NervesBones contain various kinds of tissues, including
COMPACT or SPONGYOsseous tissue can appear
(1) Give shape to body parts, (2) Support and protect soft structures, (3) Allow body movement, (4) Store calcium, (5) Red bone marrow of bone produces new blood cells – hematopoiesisFunctions of Bones
Every cell in the body needs calcium, so the body must have a large supply readily available.Why is it important for the bones to store calcium?
Ossificationprocess of bone growth
Intramembranous ossification Bones begin as tough, fibrous membrane
Intramembranous ossification Bone-forming cells called osteoblasts turn the membrane to bone (located in skull)
Endochondral ossification in which primary ossification occurs in the diaphysis of the of the bone and secondary ossification occurs in the epiphysis.
CondyleA rounded process that usually articulates with another bone
Crest A narrow, ridge-like projection
EpicondyleA projection situated above a condyle
ForamenAn opening through a bone that is usually a passageway for blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments
FossaA relatively deep pit or depression
HeadAn enlargement on the end of a bone
ProcessA prominent projection on a bone
SutureAn interlocking line of union between bones
TrochanterA relatively large process
TubercleA small, knoblike process
Tuberosity A knoblike process, usually larger than a tubercle
Cranial & FacialTwo bone types of the skull
Fontanels“Soft spots” felt on an infant's skull are
FontanelsTough membranes that connect the incompletely developed bones
(1) Osteoblasts & (2) Osteoclasts2 bone cells
Osteoblasts Bone cells that build bone
OsteoclastsBone cells that crush bone
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Section 2

Question Answer
Long BonesFemur (thigh bone)
Long BonesHumerus (upper arm bone)
Short bonesCarpals (wrist bones)
Short bonesTarsals (ankle bones)
Flat bonesRibs
Flat bonesFrontal bone
Irregular bonesVertebrae
Irregular bonesBones of the pelvic girdle
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Skull: Cranial Bones

Question Answer
Frontal anterior
Parietal top and most of the sides
Occipital back
Temporalform the lower sides of the skull
Sphenoid and ethmoid bonesfloor
(1) Malleus, (2) Incus, (3) Stapes(3) Ear ossicles are the smallest bones of the body
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The Skull (cont.)

Question Answer
Mandibleforms the lower jaw bone
Maxillaeform the upper jawbone
Zygomaticform the prominence of the cheeks
Nasal bonesfuse together to form the bridge of the nose
Palatineform the anterior portion of the palate
Vomera thin bone that divides the nasal cavity
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The Spinal Column

Question Answer
Cervical vertebrae (7)Smallest and lightest. Located in the neck region
Thoracic vertebraeJoin the 12 pairs of ribs
Lumbar vertebrae (5)Have very sturdy structures
SacrumA triangular-shaped bone that consists of five fused vertebrae
Coccyx (tailbone)A small, triangular-shaped bone made up of 3 to 5 fused vertebrae
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The Rib Cage

Question Answer
SternumBreastplate
SternumForms the front middle portion of the rib cage
SternumJoins with the clavicles and most ribs
True ribs First seven pairs of ribs
True ribs Attach to sternum by costal cartilage
False ribsRib pairs 8, 9, and 10
False ribsAttach to the costal cartilage of rib pair 7
Floating ribsRib pairs 11 and 12
Floating ribsDo not attach anteriorly to any structure
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Bones of the Shoulders, Arms, and Hands

Question Answer
Shoulderspectoral girdles
Clavicles ScapulaeShoulders
ScapulaeShoulders
HumerusUpper limb or arm bones
RadiusUpper limb or arm bones
Ulna Upper limb or arm bones
8 CarpalsHand
5 MetacarpalsHand
14 PhalangesHand
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Bones of the Hips, Legs, and Feet

Question Answer
IliumHipbones
IschiumHipbones
PubisHipbones
FemurLeg Bones
PatellaLeg Bones
TibiaLeg Bones
FibulaLeg Bones
TarsalFoot bones
MetatarsalFoot bones
PhalangesFoot bones
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Joints

Question Answer
Fibrous joints Connected together with short fibers
Fibrous joints Between cranial bones and facial bones
Fibrous joints Sutures – fibrous joints in the skull
Cartilaginous jointsConnected together with a disc of cartilage
Cartilaginous jointsBetween vertebrae
Synovial joints Covered with hyaline cartilage
Synovial joints Held together by a fibrous joint capsule lined with synovial membrane
Synovial joints Freely movable
LigamentsBones are also held together through tough, cord-like structures called ____________
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Common Diseases and Disorders

Question Answer
Arthritisgeneral term meaning joint inflammation
Osteoarthritisdegenerative joint disease, primarily of weight-bearing joints
Rheumatoid Arthritischronic systemic inflammatory disease of smaller joints and surrounding tissues
Bursitisinflammation of a bursa (fluid-filled sac that cushions tendons)
Carpal Tunnel Syndromeoveruse of wrist; the median nerve in the wrist becomes compressed
Ewing’s Family of Tumors (EFT)a group of tumors that affect different tissue types; primarily bone
Gouta type of arthritis; deposits of uric acid crystals in the joints
Kyphosisabnormal curvature of the spine (humpback)
Lordosisexaggerated inward curvature of the lumbar spine (swayback)
Osteogenesis imperfecta brittle-bone disease
Osteoporosis a condition in which bones thin (become porous) over time
Osteosarcoma a type of bone cancer that originates from osteoblasts, the cells that make bony tissue
Paget’s diseasecauses bones to enlarge and become deformed and weak
Scoliosisan abnormal S-shaped curvature of the spine
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