Sk mm means skeletal muscle

ktepps's version from 2016-11-23 01:39

Section 1

Question Answer
why does sk mm have enhanced ability to extract oxogen from bloodmyoglobin
each myocyte is incased in its own plasmalemma
what are the contractile unit of mmsarcomeres
sk mm dysfunction involves either1)a loss or diminution of the ability to exert force or 2)increase exertion of force aka myotonia
how are physiological and pathologival changes in sk mm characterized hypertrophy, atrophy, degeneration aka segmental necrosis, regeneration, and fibrosis
hypertophy increase myofiber size in response to increase workload
atrophy decreased myofiber size (decrease ion cell volume, no change in number of nuclei)
causes of atrophy disuse, denervation, cachexia/malnutrition, secondary to endocrine disease,
what is degeneration/segmental necrosisregional muscle injury is typically segmental and often involves only a portion of the myotube [just a part/segment in the mm as a whole necrosis]
can sk mm regenerate yes!! but they are less effective and less well-organized than an uninjured mm
know the mechanism of regenerationthere are 4 main steps, segmental coagulation necrosis, mac penitration, peripheral satellite cells migrate and become myoblasts, myoblasts develop into centrally located myotube (he said rowing in class)
what has to be injured in order for fibrosis to occur the basement membrane and interstitium must be sufficiently damaged
what is the functional effects of fibrosis decreased elasticity and decrease efficiency of mm contraction
sk mm damage shows up in urinalysis aspresense of myoglobinuria
sk mm damage in a chem pannel shows up ashigh AST and CK
sk mm damage shows up in a CBC asinflammation
damage to a tendon is best seen viaultrasound
what should you do before every mm biopsycall the pathologist
myopathy isInjury to muscle or pathology of muscle
what does THIN3CEO stand formm specific mnemonic device !
T stands fortoxic
H stands forHereditary
I stands forInflammatory
N stands fornutritional/Neurological/neoplastic
C stands forCirculatory
O stands forother
E stands forexertinal


Question Answer
what are the two toxic myopathiesionophore toxicity and toxic plants
what is the result of toxic myopathiesresult is myocyte degeneration, segmental necrosis, regeneration and interstitial fibrosis (if chronic)
what is White muscles diseasejust a way of describing white streaks is nto a specific parthenogenesis many different things can cause this to happen. it just the same end result!!!
Calcium ionophore toxicity susceptibilitiesequine >dog and pig >sheep and goat > cattle > poultry
Gossypol is the toxic componentcottonseed
what happens when a monogastric eat cottonseedskeletal muscle, myocardium and liver damage
Equine polysaccharide storage myopathy (EPSSM) is what type of disorderHereditary myopathies
what is EPSSM is aglycogen storage disorder
what are the clinical signs of EPSSMrange from no CS whatsoever to recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (see Exertional Myopathy), progressive weakness or lameness. EPSSM can also predispose a horse to postanesthetic myopathy
what are the effected mm groups in EPSSMthe semimembranosus, semitendinosus, gluteal, longissimus and pectoral muscles
what is characteristic when looking at EPSSM myocitesafter PAS staining, characteristic blue-grey carbohydrate-based inclusions within the cytoplasm of their myocytes (glycogenosis)
how is EPSSM treatedomg its not a BULLET! diet and appropriate exercise
inflammatory myopathies are characterized bythe presence of inflammation
how are inflammatory myopathies subdividedinfectious myopathies and immune mediated myopathies
Infectious myositis can be the result ofinfectious agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa or parasites), sterile implanted foreign material or idiopathic mechanisms
if he say Suppurative myositis you thinkNUTROPHILS
Pyogenic bacteria introduced into the muscle usually causeslocalized myonecrosis and abscessation
horses get infected withStreptococcus zooepidemicus, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
pigs,caws,sheep get infected withTrueperella pyogenes
sheeps, goats,cattle get infected withCorynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
cats,rabbits get infected withpasteurella multocida
what are the species of Clostridia that can infect and make toxins that damage muscleC. perfringens, C. chauvoei, C. septicum and C. novyi.
black leg pathogenesisClostridial spores are ingested, cross the intestinal mucosa and disseminate into tissues widely, including the skeletal muscle. With local anaerobic conditions (e.g. trauma), dormant spores (“latent spores”) germinate producing Clostridial bacteria (recall that these are anaerobic bacteria). The bacteria produce exotoxins along with abundant gas, resulting in severe capillary and muscle injury
black leg is C. chauvoe
black leg lesions are characterized bygas, hemorrhage, necrosis, foul odor and the presence of bacteria within the lesion


Question Answer
what is Gas gangrene/malignant edemathe result of Clostridial spores introduced directly into muscle via deep penetrating wounds
who gets malignant edemahorses
what is Masticatory Muscle Myositis and example ofImmune mediated myopathies
what mm are effected by MMMmasseter, temporalis, pterygoid and dygastricus (spellllling)
CS of MMMepisodic, hard, swollen, painful masticatory muscles that often atrophy and progress to fibrosis. In chronic cases the jaw may become fixed
who usually gets MMMlarge breed dogs
Nutritional myopathy isthe result of a deficiency in Vitamin E and/or selenium and is most often seen in young/neonatal animals
CS of nutritional myopathiesdemonstrate stiffness, lameness, recumbency or dyspnea
how do lesions of nutritional myopathy appearis white or pale streaks in the heavily used skeletal muscles or cardiac muscle (mineralization, fibrosis is the animal lives long enough) WHITE MM!!
WMD is terminology forthe gross appearance of linear white streaks in muscle. It is not a specific term for nutritional myopathy (recall that toxic myopathy is also referred to as WMD)
nutritional myopathy is the result ofinadequate selenium and/or Vitamin E
masticatory muscles have a unique myosin isoformtype 2M myosin
Selenium is a component of the enzymeglutathione peroxidase
Vitamin E isan antioxidant
Diagnosis of nutritional myopathy is based onsignalment, history, physical examination, clinical pathology and if necessary, biopsy and/or gross necropsy findings, histological examination and hepatic assays for Vitamin E and selenium
Pigs with insufficient Vit E and/or seleniumlesions in the heart (mulberry heart disease) and liver (hepatosis dietetica)
name the 4 neoplastic myopathiesrhabdomyoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, infiltrive lipoma
rhabdomyoma is whatbenign tumor of striated skeletal muscle (generally an incidental finding)
Rhabdomyosarcoma is whataggressively malignant tumor of striated skeletal muscle
how are rhabdomyosarcomas characterizedtumors may be characterized by strap cells, multinucleate cells and striations, which are cytologic features reminiscent of muscle
what are the variants of rhabdomyosarcomaalveolar, pleomorphic, embryonal and botryoid (“cluster of grapes”)
what is required to fully define the histogenesis and dg of rhabdomyosarcomaimmunochemistry
soft tissue sarcomas are common in whodogs
what do soft tissue sarcomas arise fromarising from the skeletal muscle or adjacent connective tissue are relatively commonly diagnosed in domestic species
whats the shit thing about soft tissue sarcomaseven if you cut them out they will probably come back
inflitrative lipoma arelipoma arising within the subcutis or muscle can invade the skeletal muscle and become a difficult surgical problem. These tumors do not metastasize(but he thinks they might)
Circulatory myopathies arethe result of insufficient blood supply to muscle
what is compartment syndromethe result of swelling of skeletal muscle within an inelastic muscle sheath (epimysium) that can result in ischemia and necrosis
who is compartment syndrome common inthe supracoracoid musculature of broiler chickens and some breeds of turkeys, as well as well conditioned athletic dogs
what is downer syndromelarger animals that have been down a while become unable to rise due to neurologic, musculoskeletal and/or metabolic reasons, due to their masss causing pressure within the muscle leading to ischemic necrosis
Postanesthetic myopathy isa relatively common complication of anesthesia in horses "downer horse"
horses with purpura hemorrhagicaa type of vascular injury secondary to Streptococcus equi + antibody formation [Ag-Ab]- an example of a Type III hypersensitivity
what are the three types of exertional myopathiesEquine exertional rhabdomyolysis, Canine exertional myopathy, Capture myopathy
exertional myopathies are characterized byacute myofiber degeneration and necrosis
Equine exertional rhabdomyolysis akaMonday-morning disease, tying-up, azoturia, black water, paralytic myobloginuria and set fast
what is EER characterized bya sudden onset of hind limb weakness, swollen hard muscles (gluteal, femoral, lumbar), myoglobinuria and the potential sequela of renal failure
what are the Dg signs of EERSerum CK and AST are often markedly elevated and the urine may be dark brown (myoglobinuria). Deficiency or marginal deficiency of Vitamin E or selenium (i.e. a nutritional myopathy) and high carbohydrate diets may exacerbate the clinical signs
Canine exertional myopathyexertional rhabdomyolysis-type syndrome has been described in extreme canine athletes such as greyhounds and sled dogs
Capture myopathy isthe result of acute, extreme overexertion and stress (++ catecholamines) in nondomestic species (wildlife)[possibly having to do weith diets poor in selenium]
what is the perfect storm for capture myopathyspiking epinephrine levels, deficient dietary selenium coupled with extreme over exertion
what are the CS of capture myopathydyspnea, weakness, muscle tremors, muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, collapse and death
what can happen days after initial capture myapothyto renal failure (myoglobinuria) or myocardial fibrosis
when you are trying to Dg mm disease its important to try and do whattry to figure out the subtype of myopathy it might fit into (circulatory? Nutritional?)