SK lecture 6

winniesmith2's version from 2018-05-03 17:57

Section 1

Question Answer
Where is the atlanto-occipital jointbetween the atlas and occipital condoles of skull
Where is the atlantoaxial jointbetween atlas and axis
What are the joints between the vertebrae called intervertebral joints
What are discs between the body of the vertebre intervertebral discs. Get compressed in a weight baring situation, made of slightly spongey fibro cartilage.
How many vertebrae are in each section 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, then the sacrum and the coccyx
what is lordosisexcessive curvature of the lumbar spine. excess lumbar extension.
what is kyphosisexcessive curvature of thoracic spine
what is scoliosissideways curvature of spine
for ideal posture, the plumbline should pass through- just behind the ear, - centre of the shoulder, - hip and - knee joints - just in front of the ankle

Section 2

Question Answer
Abdominal musclesrectus abdoninis (with linea alba) external and internal obliques, transverse abdominis
linea alba
external obliquesO- external surface of 5th to 12th ribs. I- Anterior part of the iliac crest, abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba.
internal obliquesO- lateral inguinal ligament, iliac crest and thoracolumbar fascia. I- Internal surface of lower 3 ribs, abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
transverse abdominisO- Lateral inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia and internal surface of lower 6 ribs. I- Abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
what is the action of the transverse abdominisexpiration, maintaining intra-abdominal pressure and core stability.
what is the action of the external obliques both sides: lumbar flexion. one side; lateral flexion to the same side. lumber rotation to the opposite side.
what is the action of the internal obliques Both sides; lumbar flexion. One side: lateral flexion to the same side. Lumbar rotation to same side.
what is the action of the rectus abdominisFlex the vertebral column and tilt pelvis posteriorly.
rectus abdominisO- pubic crest, pubic symphysis. I- cartilage of 5th, 6th and 7th ribs and xiphoid process.

Section 3

Question Answer
what are the posterior muscles Erector spinae muscles and the quadratus lumborum
what are the erector spinae muscles spinalis, longissimus and the iliocostalis
what is the action of the erector spinae groupextension of all sections of the spine
what is the action of the quadratus lumborum lateral lumbar flexion to the same side. Stabilisation of the pelvis and lumbar spine.
spinalisErector spinae group- O- Common tendon (thoracolumbar aponeurosis) that attches to the posterior surface of sacrum, iliac crest, spinous processes of the lumbar and last 2 thoracic v. I- Various attachments at posterior ribs, spinous and transverse processes of thoracic and cervical V and mastoid process of temporal bone
quadratus lumborumO- posterior iliac crest. I- last rib and transverse processes of 1st through 4th lumbar v.

Section 4

Question Answer
What is core stability The ability of the muscles of the abdomen, particularly the deeper postural muscles (e.g. TA & QL), to maintain a stable and balanced abdomen & pelvis.
How does core stability aid performance A solid base for forceful movements of the limbs. Effective transfer of force/power through the core.
What is the injury with core instability may allow unwanted movements of the pelvis and spine, leading to an excessive ROM, excessive forces on the musculo-skeletal system.
why is core stability important in lifting items of the floor helps to support the spine, and reduce load on the spine. The abdomen acts as a rigid block, producing IAP- intra-abdominal pressure.
what percentage of the world's population at one time or another suffer from lumbar pain80% (low back pain)
What are the causes and risk factors for low back pain numerous and complex causes. risk factors: poor posture, muscle imbalance, poor core stability.
Is there an association between leg length inequality and low back pain as the inequality difference increased the percentage frequenting of back pain increased but some people had inequalities with no pain.