SK- Lecture 3- foot and ankle

winniesmith2's version from 2018-03-29 16:21

Section 1

Question Answer
How many bones are in the foot 26
What is the function of bones in the foot -Load bearing. -Locomotion; A shock absorber. A lever for propulsion.
What are the 2 arches of the foot-Longitudinal arch and Transverse arch. Can be low or high arches. Fallen/low arch= nearly whole of plantar section of the foot surface touches the ground, good for cushioning, bad for propulsion. High arch = vise versa, runner arch.
What are plantar fascia A web like ligamentous structure. Attached to the calcaneus, metatarsals, phalanges and the skin. Helps support the base of the entire foot, including both arches during load bearing. But when strained can lead to plantar fascitis.
Name the 6 major moveable joints of the foot and ankle Ankle (talocrural joint)  Subtalar joint  Transverse tarsal joint  Tarsometatarsal joint  Metatarsophalangeal joint (MP)  Interphalangeal joint (IP)
Describe the talocrural (ankle) joint  Uniaxial hinge joint  Fibular malleolus, tibial malleolus and many ligaments form a mortise  Allows 40-50º plantar flexion and 15-20º dorsiflexion
Describe the subtalar & Transverse Tarsal joints  Gliding, freely moveable joints  The subtalar joint is the articulation of the talus with the calcaneus calcaneus Talus Subtalar joint Navicular cuboid Transverse tarsal joint  The Transverse tarsal joint is the articulation of the talus and calcaneus with the navicular and cuboid.  Allow up to 15º eversion and 25º inversion
What are the major movements of the ankle Dorsiflexion and plantarflexion. Also; toe flexion & extension. Toe abduction & adduction.
What are the major movements of the subtalar & transverse tarsal Inversion and Eversion. What about pronation and supination?

Section 2

Question Answer
Muscles of the superficial posterior compartment Gastrocnemius and Soleus
GastrocnemiusO-Posterior surface of femoral condoles. I- Posterior calcaneous (via calcaneal tendon).
SoleusO- (Soleal line; proximal, posterior surface of the tibia and posterior head of fibula) posterior of tibia and fibula. I- posterior calcaneous via calcaneal/ achilles tendon.
Muscles of the deep posterior compartment(assist with plantarflexion and inversion). Tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus
Tibialis posteriorO- (proximal, posterior shafts of tibia and fibular; and interosseous membrane). Tibia and fibula. I- (All 5 tarsal bones and bases of second through fourth metatarsals). Numerous tarsals/metatarsals of inferior of foot.
Flexor digitorum longusO- (middle) posterior surface of tibia. I- Distal phalanges of 4 digits (of second through fifth toes).
Flexor hallucis longus O- (middle half of) posterior of fibula. I- Distal phalanx of first toe.

Section 3

Question Answer
Muscles of the anterior compartment(all are doriflexors) Extensor digitorum longus (EDL), Extensor hallucis longus (EHL) and Tibialis anterior.
Extensor digitorum longus (EDL)O- (proximal) Anterior shaft of fibula (and interosseous membrane. Lateral condyle of tibia) I- Middle and distal phalanges of 4 digits (2nd through 5th toes).
Extensor hallucis longus (EHL)O- Anterior medial fibula (and interosseous membrane). I- Distal phalanx of first toe.
Tibialis anteriorO- Lateral condyle and (anterior?) lateral surface of tibia (and interosseous membrane). I- First metatarsal (and medial cuneiform).
Muscles of the Lateral compartment (the primary evertors) Peroneus longus, peroneus brevis
Peroneous longus O- (proximal two-thirds of) lateral fibula (and head of fibula). I- Base of first metatarsal (and medial cuneiform).
Peroneous brevisO- Distal two-thirds of lateral fibula. I- Tuberosity of fifth metatarsal.

Section 4

Question Answer
Name 4 common injuries of the foot and ankle Plantar fascitis, Achilles tendon rupture, 'Shin splints', Ankle sprains.
What are shin splints caused by Chronic overuse injury. Anterior/posterior to the tibia. 1. Caused by small tears/ inflammation of the muscles attaching to the tibia. 2. Stress fractures.
Describe ankle sprains Caused by inversion (>90% - with the anterior talo-fibular ligament most often sprained) or Eversion (less common as blocked by fibular. Once a sprain has occurred the chance of re-injury increases by up to 50%.