SK lecture 2

winniesmith2's version from 2018-03-28 15:46

Section 1

Question Answer
anteriortoward the front
posteriortoward the rear
medialtoward the mid-line/centre
lateral away from the mid-line/centre
proximal closer to the trunk or origin
distal away from the trunk or origin
superficialtowards the surface
deepinside the body and away from the surface
plantarpertaining to the sole of the foot
palmarpertaining to the palm of the hand
dorsum/dorsal pertaining to the superior aspect of the foot or the posterior aspect of the hand

Section 2

Question Answer
What are the 3 cardinal planes of the body sagittal, frontal (coronal) and horizontal (transverse)
Sagittal planethrough the centre of the body, cutting the body in half vertically
Horizontal plane (transverse)cutting the body in the middle, horizontally (ie splitting head from legs)
Frontal plane (coronal)cutting through the body, separating the front half of the body to the back (ie chest sides split from bum side)

Section 3

Question Answer
flexion decreasing the angle
extension increasing the angle
adduction 'adding' to the body, moving more medial
abduction 'abducted by aliens' moving away from the medial line.
internal rotationmoving towards body
external rotation moving away from body
Plantarflexionpointing toes down
dorsiflexion pointing toes up/foot up
Lumbar flexion bending forward
lumbar extension leaning backwards
shoulder girdle; elevation lifting shoulder up towards ears
shoulder girdle: depression moving shoulder down

Section 4

Question Answer
Agonist the muscle(s) responsible for performing and controlling the movement
Antagonist the muscle(s) that could oppose the agonists if activated.
Stabilisers contract to stabilize nearby joints
Synergistsassist in the action of the agonists (gliding muscles).
Origin(s)the tendon attachment(s) nearest the centre of the body (fixed)
Insertion(s)the tendon attachment(s) furthest from the centre of the body.
5 types of muscle shapes Parallel, fusiform, pennate, triangular, bipennate (2 heads)

Section 5

Question Answer
How do muscles create movementWhen activated, muscles produce tension, applying force to bone via tendon. Movement only occurs when the torques…….. The bones act as levers, rotating about a pivot or fulcrum of a joint.
Equation for torque =Force x perpendicular distance from the pivot.
Describe the forces when stationary Tm = Tg (Torque of muscle = torque of gravitational force. Net torque (balance of Tm vs Tg) determines movement.
With the biceps brachii if Tm > Tg thenarm moves up (flexion)
With the biceps brachii if Tm < Tg thenarm moves down (extension)
If a muscles attaches further from a joint:- It Has a longer lever arm (perpendicular distance from the pivot). If all other things being the same (i.e. muscle force), then ↑ Torque (strength),
What else does a longer lever arm do (not including torque)↓ range of motion (flexibility) ↓ joint angular velocity (speed).