Six Sigma E1

ndifranco94's version from 2016-10-26 12:14


Question Answer
Sigma-level of xUSL or LSL is x-sigma away from target level
Process sigma level(USL-mean/sigma) OR (mean-LSL/sigma)
6 sigma level6*sigma = USL-mean = LSL-mean
DPMO at 6-sigma level3.4
When mean shifts by 1.5 in 6-sigma process, DPMO =3.4
Process capability/performancemeasure of relationship b/n natural variation and design specs
Process Capability/Performance RATIOPp = USL-LSL/6*sigma
Process is capable if PpPp > 1
Process Performance INDEXminimum of (USL-mean/3*sigma) OR (mean-LSL/3*sigma)
Process is capable if PkPk > 1
CTQcritical to quality, the dependent variable that you are TRYING TO IMPROV, what is important to the customer
How to define CTQ'sCriterion (VOP and VOC), Test (compare VOP and VOC), Decision (decide if output is good)
Championssenior-level managers who promote six sigma
Master Black Beltsfull-time six-sigma experts
Black Beltslead 4-6 strategic imrpovement projects
Green Beltswork part-time, know tools
RTY (Rolled Throughput Yield)product of yield in each step of process, yields multiplied together
Why did 6-sigma fail at AMH?resistance by physicians
VOPvoice of process (reality)
VOCvoice of customer (target)
Root Cause Analysisfind causes
Fishbone diagraminvented by Ishikawa, find env't, people, matl'ls, machines, methods, measurement issues, embodies 5 whys, AKA cause-and-effect diagram
Theory of Constraintssolving one bottleneck will often uncover another
Data collection at hospitaldo over multiple days, want INDEPENDENT observations
P-value sayingif the P is low, then the H0 must go
Hawthorne Effectpeople change behavior when observed
Effectiveness equationEffectiveness = Quality x Acceptance
Change Acceleration Process (CAP) ToolsCommunication, Involvement, Organizational Hierarchy, Stakeholder and Resistance Analysis
The 7 WastesOverproduction, Inventory, Waiting, Motion, Transportation, Rework, Over processing
Lean thinkingline up value-creating actions in the best sequence
Lean PrinciplesDefine value, map value stream, create flow, establish PULL, pursue perfection
Pulllet customer pull product from you, more responsive than push systems
Lean manufacturingrelentless elimination of waste
Value Stream Mappingprovides big picture view of whole process and how information/material flows through a process
Flowchartsshow movement of matls
Time-Function Mappingflows and time frame
Spaghetti Diagramcontinuous line to trace path and distance of particular object/person throughout process on floor map
Service Blueprintingmaps steps of a service process, presents diff interactions b/n client and service provider
Andoncord that alerts supervisors about problem
Hejunkareducing the gap between supply and demand so that you are making inventories of 1 at a time
Jidokado not pass defects downstream, make problems self-evident
Kanbancards that allow you to manage inventory
Kaizencontinuous improvement, usually to eliminate muda (waste)
Pillars of TPSJust In Time (inventory), Jidoka (detect problems and stop to fix)
SIPOC analysisSuppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs, Customers
Why use SIPOC?helps team and sponsors agree on project boundaries and scope
Filling out a SIPOCstart w/ process, move to outputs and customers, then move backwards to inputs and suppliers
Pareto's Law80/20 rule, 20% of the effort is responsible for 80% of the results
Pareto Chartbar graph where length of bars = frequency. Longest bars on the left, shortest on the right
Goal of Pareto diagramidentify the "vital few" and the "trivial many"
Affinity Mappinglogical grouping of ideas, allows you to analyze qualitative feedback better
When to use dot plotn<50
Stem and Leaf plotlike histogram on its side
IQRinterquartile range, Q3-Q1
Lower FenceQ1 - 1.5*IQR
Upper FenceQ3 + 1.5*IQR
Root causemost basic reason, which, if eliminated, would prevent recurrence
5 WhysRoot cause analysis where you continually ask why? (usually 5 times) in order to get to the root cause
FMEAIdentify critical Xs from cause-and-effect or fishbone and identify failure modes. Find Severity, Occurence, and Detection likelihoods and multiply together to get RPN
RPMrisk priority # = Sev x Det x Occ
Null hypothesisH0, assumed to be true until proven otherwise
Alternative hypothesisHa, will be accepted as true if we can disprove H0 by data
p-valueprobability caluclated from data
t-Testwhen standard deviation is unknown
z-Testwhen standard deviation is KNOWN
Gage R&Rmeasure repeatability and reproducibility; statistical tool that measures the amount of variation in the measurement system arising from the measurement device and the people taking the measurement
Gage R&R meaningrepeatability and reproductiblity
Qualitytotality of features and characteristics that bears on ability to satisfy stated or implied needs
Common quality dimensionsfunctionality, icing on the cake, appearance, reliability, durability, recovery, ease of use, access
Quality sales gains viaimproved response, flexible pricing, improved reputation
Qualty cost reduction viaincreased productivity, lower rework/scrap, lower warranty costs
Fredrick Taylorintroduced Principles of Scientific Management
Walter Shewhartdeveloped Statistical Process Control and control charts
Edwards Deminginvented six sigma, consulted with countries like Japan
Kaoru Ishikawatranslated six sigma for Japan, came up with fishbone diagram
Armand Feigenbaumpublished Total Quality Control
Motorolafirst to implement DMAIC
Anything outside of fences?outlier

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