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Signalment & PE

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sihirlifil's version from 2018-03-15 02:22

Signalment

Question Answer
Neonate =From birth to 1 month old
Weanling =Usually weaned at 5-6m
Yearling =12-18m
Long yearling =18-24m
Adult =>2y
What is the biggest breed registry in the US?American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA)
Stallion vs gelding? Mare?Stallion = intact, gelding castrated. Mare is female
Coat color:
Chestnut/Sorrel
Coat color:
Bay
Coat color:
Grey
Coat color:
Palomino
Coat color:
Buckskin
Coat color:
Dun
Coat color:
Black
Head markings:
Star
Head markings:
Bald
Head markings:
Blaze
Head markings:
Snip
Head markings:
Stripe
Leg markings:
Coronet
Leg markings:
Half pastern
Leg markings:
Sock
Leg markings:
Stocking
Leg markings:
Half cannon
Basic components (pic)
Walk =4 beat gait
Trot =2 beat gait
Canter =3 beat gait
Gallop =4 beat gait
memorize

Physical Exam

Question Answer
Mentation (3)BAR, QAR, or dull
General appearance (3)Coat, BCS (thin, moderate, fat), obvious problems
Also not gait & stance
HeadOcular/nasal d/c
Facial symmetry (bones/muscle)
Mucus mb
Pulse pressure
Temp of muzzle, ears
Airflow from nostrils (RR? pain?)
Percuss sinuses
Palpate submandibular LN
Brief oral exam
Brief ocular exam (sclera, pupil position, symmetry)
Normal mucus mb?Pink with CRT <1.5 sec
What are you looking at with the sclera?Color, injection of vasculature
Where do you feel pulse pressure?Facial artery, transverse facial artery, great metatarsal artery
Pulse pressure:
Facial artery
Pulse pressure:
Great metatarsal artery
Pulse pressure:
Transverse facial artery
Pharynx --> neck: what are you examining?External palpation of guttural pouch
Retropharyngeal LN (only if enlarged)
What's wrong here?
Enlarged retropharyngeal LN
What's going on?
Evaluating jugular vein
Occlusion of jug allows distention of vein above
Is jugular vein pulsation normal?Can be! If doesnt extend to thoracic inlet (horse heart is huge so some is going to back up)
1ry IM injection siteNeck muscles
How to examine the heart?Auscult rate, rhythm, simultaneous palpation of pulse (strong pulse pressure should coincide with heartbeat)
Normal HR24-44 BPM
Where are the LEFT heart valves?Deep to triceps muscle
Where is the RIGHT heart valve?
What do the heart sounds correspond to?S1 = closure of AV valves
S2 = closure of semilunar valves
S3 = early diastole, rapid ventricular filling
S4 = atrial contraction
Which heart sounds are audible?S4, S1, S2
Definitive dx of arrythmia requiresECG
Which arrhythmia is non-pathologic at rest?Sinus block & 1st/2nd degree AV block
Description of murmur includesPoint of maximal intensity (PMI)
Duration of murmur
Audible intensity (Grades I-VI)
Normal resp rate? how do you assess?8-24 bpm
Watch nostrils, chest excursions, +/- abdominal effort
Character of respiration: normal vs abnormalNormal = quiet, effortless chest excursions
Abnormal = labored, noisy, +/- abdominal effort
Lung sounds: intensity (insp vs exp)Inspiration (active) = louder than expiration (passive)
Abnormal/adventitial lung sounds (3)Crackles = popping/bubbling
Wheezes = musical tones
Plerual friction rub = pleuritis
When ausculting the airways, never forgetthe TRACHEA
Where are the airbags
When do you do a rebreathing exam?More intensive evaluation of lower respiratory tract
How do you do a rebreathing exam?Hold bag away from nostrils, asucult thorax/trachea during rebreathing & after bag is removed
Where do you listen to the gut?
Limb palpation: what are you feeling?MSK eval: joints, tendons, ligaments (heat, swelling, pain)
Presence of distal limb edema
Evidence of laminitis
How do you eval for laminits? (3)Palpate digital pulses, coronary band, hoof capsules
Horse should willingly lift each foot
Turn horse in small circles, both directions
Cool, you finished! but dont forget to...round the tail and do the RIGHT SIDE lolz
Normal adult rectal temp99* - 101.5*F
memorize

 

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