Sheep Brain Practicum

annire's version from 2015-09-23 05:12

External Anatomy

Question Answer
meningesseries of membranes that protect the CNS
dura matertoughest layer of the meninges composed of fibrous connective tissue
arachnoid layermiddle layer of meninges, has a cobweb like structure
subarachnoid spacefilled with cerebral spinal fluid and contains blood vessels
cerebral spinal fluida nutrient rich solution that supplies the brain and protects it
pia materthe thin innermost layer that adheres tightly to surface of brain dipping into cerebral spinal fluid, which bathes the brain


Question Answer
rostraltowards the front **towards nose and mouth
caudaltowards the back **tail
medialtowards the middle
lateraltowards the side
superioron top of
horizontal sectionparallel to dorsal/ventral axis
saggital sectionslicing in vertical plane parallel to medial plane => right/left portions
frontal/coronalvertical plane perpendicular to the sagittal plane => anterior/posterior parts


Question Answer
frontal lobeproblem solving and judgement, memory and language, social and sexual behavior. *prefrontal cortex, premotor and motor area (Does motor function).
parietal lobeintegration of sensory info and perception
temporal lobeauditory and visual perception, memory, emotional responses. **olfactory cortex, the hippocampus, amygdala.
occipital lobeprocessing of visual information by the visual cortex


Question Answer
myelencephalon (medulla)processes sensory information from the periphery. *has primary motor neurons
metencephaloncerebellum + arbor vitae, pons
cerebellumintegrates sensory information from muscles. **controls motor coordination, posture and balance
arbor vitae"tree of life", the white matter of cerebellum
ponsa major pathway for information that flows from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum**body movements

Midbrain (mesencephalon)

Question Answer
tectuminferior and superior colluculi
inferior colliculusintegration of auditory senses
superior colliculusintegration of visual sense


Question Answer
diencephalonthalamus and hypothalamus // relay for info that enters and leaves the telencephalon
mammillary bodiesreceive info from the hippocampus. ** memory processing
thalamusreceive input from all major senses. synchronizes activity in brain
massa intermediapart of the thalamus, where the two halves of the thalamus join at the midline
hypothalamusCNS control of visceral motor function ///integrates info from the forebrain, brainstem, various endocrine systems. **
telencephalonolfactory bulb and pyriform lobe
olfactory bulb and tractreceives info through the olfactory nerves. **only sensory type that direct inputs into the telencephalon
olfactory cortex/pyriform lobe/cortexmajor target of the olfactory tract.

Other structures

Question Answer
gyrusfoldings of cerebral cortical tissue, "the ridges"
sulcusfurrows separating the gyri, filled with small blood vessels, "the space"
pineal bodysmall endocrine gland in the brain that produces melatonin **sleep/wake patterns
pituitary gland"the master gland", endocrine, **growth, blood pressure & metabolism, sexual function
corpus callosumthick band of nerve fibers (axon projections**?), allows communication between hemispheres.
spleniumposterior portion of the corpus callosum
genuanterior portion of the corpus callosum
optic chiasmwhere left and right optic nerves cross to the other side of the brain
fornixrelay from hippocampus to mammilary bodies. **regulation of memory formation
cingulate gyrus** supervision of attention, general emotional responses and addiction
infundibulum"pituitary stalk". connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland
amygdala**regulates rxns to things of special biological significance (pain, danger etc.). also helps regulate aggressive/defensive, reproductive/maternal behavior
hippocampusdamage to this, or any region connected to this, causes anterograde amnesia or the inability to learn new info

Brain ventricles

Question Answer
lateral ventriclein each side of the cerebral hemispheres
third ventricleseparates right and left halves of thalamus and hypothalamus
fourth ventriclelarge space between cerebellum and the medulla and pons
cerebral aqueductnarrow cavity running through the midbrain (looks like under inferior colliculus)

Cranial Nerves (5/12)

Question Answer
optic nervesensory nerve that relays info about visual stimulus from the eye to the brain.
oculomotor nervemotor nerve that controls activity of muscles that turn the eyeball in its socket and move the eyelid
trigeminal nervelargest of the cranial nerves. carries sensory info to the brainstem
vagus nerveinnervates many of the viscera (internal organs). (heart, lung, stomach)
abducensefferent nerve that controls lateral movement of the eye

Anterior portion of the corpus callosum

Question Answer
caudate nucleusinvolved in voluntary motor control ** learning and memory
putamen**regulation of movement. influences various forms of learning. parkinson's disease

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