SGU SVM Histology Urogenital Embryology

hpaul2's version from 2016-11-16 17:22

Kidney development

Question Answer
What tissue do the kidneys develop frommesoderm
What is the first structure of the kidney to formnephrogenic ridge
What are the kidney systems which develop from the nephogenic ridge (cranial to caudal)pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros
What species have only the pronephros (pronephric kidney)fish
What species have only pronephros & mesonephros (mesonephric kidney)amphibians
What species have all three systems (metanephric kidney)reptile, bird, mammal
What is the theory of recaputulationthe individual repeats the development of its ancestors
What structures does the pronephros develop (and how many)7-8 pronephric tubules
What structure do the pronephric tubules create when they meetpronephric duct
What structure persists from the pronephros in the mammal and what does it becomepronephric duct becomes mesonephric duct
What determines the size of the mesonephros (be specific)type of placenta; small- endotheliochorial (carnivore); intermediate- sheep; large- epitheliochorial (pigs)
What structure of the mesonephros is functional in the embryomesonephric tubules
What structures form from the mesonephric tubulesbowman’s capsule & mesonephric duct
Where do the glomerulus arise frombranches of dorsal aorta
What structure of the mesonephros persists in mammalsmesonephric duct
Where does the metanephric diverticulum (ureteric bud) arise fromcaudalmesonephric duct
What does the metanephric diverticulum (ureteric bud) develop intocollecting system
What does the ureteric bud come in contact with and what structure is createdmetanephric tissue; metanephric cap
What does the metanephric duct develop intoexcretory system (nephron)
What adult structures are derived from the metanephric tissue capbowman’s capsule, PCT, loop of hele, DCT
What adult structures are derived from the ureteric budcollecting tubules, major/minor calyces, renal pelvis, ureter

Urinary bladder

Question Answer
What parts does the urogenital sinus divide intovesicular, pelvic, phallic
What structures form the bladderproximal allantois & vesicular part of urogentical sinus
What is the degenerated allantois calledurachus
What does the mesonephric duct become and what structure does it open intodeferent duct; into bladder
What does the metanephric duct become and what structure does it open intoureter; pelvic part of urogenital sinus


Question Answer
What is renal agenesisabsence of one or both kidneys
What is horse-shoe kidneyfused kidneys
What is cystic kidneyfailure of nephron and collecting duct to connect
What is an ectopic ureterureter opening into urethra
In what animals is ectopic ureter more commonfemale dogs

Genital development

Question Answer
What is established at fertilizationgenetic sex
What does ‘indifferent stage’ meansex cannot be determined morphologically
What structure develops on the ventro-medial aspect of the mesonephrosgenital ridge (gonadal ridge)
What type of epithelium lines the genital ridgecoelomic epithelium
What induces development of genital ridge and primitive sex cordsmigration of primordial germ cells from yolk sac
What structure develops into the male duct systempersisting mesonephric (wolffian) duct
Where does the mesonephric duct developlateral to genital ridge
What structure develops into the female duct systemparamesonephric (mullerian) duct
Where does the paramesonephric duct developdorsolateral to mesonephric duct
During what stage does the embryo have both wolffian and mullerian ductsindifferent stage
What male structures develop from the ectodermscrotum & penis
What male structures develop from the intermediate mesodermvas deferens, epididymis & testis
What male structures develop from the endodermpelvicurethra & penile urethra
What female structures develop from the ectodermclitoris & labia
What female structures develop from the intermediate mesodermuterine horn, uterine tube, ovary, uterine body, cervix, & cranial vagina
What female structures develop from the endodermcaudal vagina, urethral opening, & vestibule

Sex determination

Question Answer
What genes does the y chromosome containtestis determining factor genes
What causes female developmentabsence of testis determining factor
What substance causes regression of mullerian duct and what produces itmullerian inhibitory substance; sertoli cells
What stimulates development of wolffian duct and what produces ittestosterone; leydig cells


Question Answer
What parts of the testis cords become new structures and what are these structuresperipheral- seminiferous tubules; central- rete testis
What do the primordial germ cells become before and after birthgonocytes; after birth- spermatogonia
What are the sertoli and leydig cells derived frommesenchyme
What separates the testis cords and coelomic epithelium and what is it derived frommesenchymal sheet from tunica albugenia
What structure extends from the gonad to the scrotal swellinggebernaculum testis
What causes testis to descendswelling of gebernaculum tesis + intra-abdominal pressure


Question Answer
What do the gonadal cords become in femalesfollicles
What do follicles containprimordial germ cells
What do primordial germ cells become in femalesoogonia
Where are follicles found in the ovarycortex
What happens to follicles in the medulladegenerate
What structure if poorly developed in the ovarytunica albugenia
Where do the follicular cells originate frommesynchyme

Duct system

Question Answer
What does the mesonephric duct become in the maleductus epididymis & ductus deference
What structure develops at the terminal part of the mesonephric duct in the malevesicular gland
What duct regresses in the maleparamesonephric duct
What does the paramesonephric duct become in the femaleurterine tube (cranially), uterus & vagina (caudally)
What duct regresses in the femalemesonephric duct

External genitalia

Question Answer
What tissue begins to thickenproctodeal ectoderm
Where does the proctodeal ectoderm thickenmarginof urogenital membrane
What median thickening gives rise to penisand clitorisgenital tubercle
What lateral thickening give rise to scrotum and labiagenital swellings


Question Answer
What is/causes a freemartinsterile female in male/female twin pairs, b/c of testosterone of male
What is cryptochidismfailure of testis to descend
In what species is unilateral cryptochidism fairly commonpigs
What condition can occur congenitally and involve the intestinesinguinal or scrotal hernia
Whatishydrocoeleaccumulation of fluid within tunica vaginalis layers