SGU SVM Histology Endocrine

hpaul2's version from 2016-11-16 17:10


Question Answer
Endocrine glands are ______ glandsductless
What are the endocrine organspituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreatic islets
What is found in the parenchyma of endocrine glands large epitheloidcells, capillary networks
What do endocrine parenchymal cells release and wherehormones; into intercellular or perivascular CT space  circulatory system
The tissue affected by hormones are ____target organs

Hypophysis/Pituitary gland

Question Answer
What are the two parts of the pituitaryadenohypophysis & neurohypophysis
What are the parts of the adenohypophysispars distalis, pars intermedia, pars tuberalis
What are the types of cells found in the pars distalisacidophiles, basophiles, chromotrophs
Name the acidophilessomatotrophs & lactotrophs (prolactin)
Name the basophilsthyrotrophs, gonadotrophs, corticotrophs
What do somatotrophs producesomatotrophin (growth hormone)
What do Lactrotrophs causeincreased mammary gland secretion (lactogenic)
What do thyrotrophs secretethyroid stimulating hormone
What does TSH causerelease of thyroxine from thyroid gland
What do gonadotrophs produceFollicle stimulating hormone & leutinizing hormone
What do corticotrophs produce and what does it doadrenocorticotropic hormone; actos on adrenal cortex
What are chromophobesresting degranulated chomophils
What separates the pars intermedia from the pars distalishypophyseal cleft
What structure is the pars intermedia closely associated withneurohypophysis
What are the most abundant cells in the pars intermediamelanotropes
What do melanotropes producemelanocyte-stimulating hormone
What makes up the pars tuberalisfollicles made of epithelial cell clusters + gonadotrophs &thyrotrophs
What is the possible purpose of the pars tuberalisseasonal reproductive cycle
What are the nuclei of the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal systemsupraoptic & paraventricular
What do the neurohypophyseal nuclei contain in their neuronal bodiesneurosecretory granules
What do neurosecretory granules produceoxytocin, vasopressin/antidiruetic hormone
How are neurosecretory granules transported to the neurohypophysisvia axons of hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract
Where are neurosecretory granules released from and intoaxon terminals; perivascular space of sinusoidal capillaries
Enlarged axon terminals with neurosecretory granules areherring bodies
What are the glial cells of the neurohypophysispituicytes
What are pituicytesmodified astrocytes
Where are pituicytes locatedaround axons & capillaries

Thyroid gland

Question Answer
What surrounds the thyroid glandthin dense irregular CT capsule
What divides the tyroid into lobulestrabecula (extension of CT capsule)
What are the three structures found in thyroid lobulesthyroid follicles, parafollicular cells, sinusoidal capillaries
Describe the resting thyroid epitheliumlow cuboidal w/ dense colloid
Describe the stimulated thyroid epitheliumcuboidal or low columnar w/ dissolved colloid
What do stimulated thyroid epithelial cells secretethyroid hormones
What cells in the thyroid gland occur in the basal laminaparafollicular cells
In what species can parafollicular cells be found in groups outside the basal laminadogs
What characterize parafollicular cellslight staining cytoplasm, abundant golgi, membrane bound vesicles
What do parafollicular cells secretecalcitonin
What does calcitonin cause and howdecreased blood Ca via suppressed bone resorption


Question Answer
What surrounds the parathyroid glanddense irregular CT capsule
How is parathyroid parenchyma arrangedclusters or cords
What are the parathyroid cellslight principal, dark principal, oxyphilic, transitional
In what species are oxyphilic cells foundhorse & large ruminants
What do parathyroid cells secreteparathormone
What does parathormone domaintain calcium & phosphorus blood levels


Question Answer
What surrounds the adrenal glandsthin CT capsule
What are the two layers of the adrenal glandcortex & medulla
What are the zones of the adrenal cortexzona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis
What forms the zona glomerulosa in ruminantsirregular clusters & cords of cells
What is the zona glomerulos called in horses, carnivores, & pigs and whyzona arcuata; cells are arranged in arcs
What do cells in the zona glomeruloa producemineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
What do mineralocorticoids domaintain sodium & potassium levels in extracellular body fluid
What does the zona fasciculata consist ofradially arranged cords of cuboidal & columnar cells
What do zona fasciculata cells containlipid droplets
What does the zona reticularisirregular network of anastomosing cell cords (columnar & cuboidal)
What do the zona fasciculata and fasiculata produceglucocorticoids
What do glucocorticoids doprotein, fat, & carbohydrate metabolism
Describe the structure adrenal medullairregular cords & clusters w/ sinusoidal capillaries
What type of cells are in the adrenal medullachromaffin cells
What do chromaffin cells produce in response to stressnorepinephrin & epinephrine

Pancreatic islets

Question Answer
How are pancreatic islet cells arrangedirregular anastomosing cords
Name the types of pancreatic islet cells; which are the most commonA-cells (5-30%), B-cells (60-80%), C-cells, D-cells, small granulated cells
Are A-cells granulated or non-granulatedgranulated
How do A-cells stain and whymason’s trichome & gomori’s aldehyde-fuchsin – brilliant red; granuoles insoluble in alcohol
Describe the nucleus of the A-cellslobulated
What do A-cells secreteglucagon
What does glucagon doincrease blood sugar
Are B-cells granulated or non-granulatedgranulated
How do B-cells stain and whyMallory’s trichrome- dark orange, gomori’s aldehyde-fuchsin- deep purple; granuoles soluble in alcohol
What do B-cells produceinsulin
What does insulin doreduce blood sugar
What are C-cellsimmature precursor cells
Are C-cells granulated or non-granulatednon-granulated
How common are D-cellsrare
What do D-cells producesomatostatin
What does somatostain doinhibits secretion of insulin & glucagon
What do small granulated cells producegastro-enteropancreatic hormones
What do gastro-enteropancreatic hormones doinhibit intestinal mobility & bile secretion