SGU SVM Anatomy I Thorax & Respiratory Apparatus

hpaul2's version from 2016-10-23 03:32

Thorax & Respiratory Apparatus

Sinuses & Larynx

Paranasal Sinuses

Question Answer
What are the paranasal sinusesdiverticula ofthe nasal cavity
Where are the paranasal sinuses locatedbetween two platesof the skull bone (ex. frontal bone)
What sinus is not a true sinusMaxillary recess
What are the 3 compartments of the frontal sinusmedial, rostral, lateral
What is the largest compartment of the frontal sinusLateral
How does the frontal sinus communicated with the nasal cavitythe ethmoidal conchae
What are the openings to the compartments of the frontal sinus callednasofrontal openings
What structures project into the compartments of the frontal sinusethmoturbinates
What lines the ethmoidal conchae, and what is it's purposeolfactory mucosa, smell
What is the purpose of the dorsal and midle nasal meatuseslead air toward ethmoid conchae
What makes the maxillary/nasal recess not a true sinusis actually a cavity between maxilla and ethmoid bone
Where is the nasomaxillary opening locatedmiddle nasal meatus
What tooth projects into the maxillary recessroot of upper sectorial tooth
What additional sinus can be found in the catsphenoidal
What is unique to the feline frontal sinusit is undivided
What root absesses can spread into the maxilarry sinus of the catmolar/premolar teeth


Question Answer
What is the purpose of the larynxgaurd entrance to trachea, air channel, vocalization
The Larynx is between what two structuresPharynx and trachea
What are the components of the larynxLaryngeal cartilages, laryngeal muscles, ligaments & membranes, cavity of larynx, glottic cleft
What are the 4 cartilages of the larynxepiglotic, thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid
What is the cranial-most cartilageepigloticcartilage
What are the three parts of the epiglotic cartilagestalk, base, apex
What type of cartilage is the epiglotis composed ofelastic cartilage
What is the thyroid cartilage made ofthyroid lamina - two lateral plates/lamina
What do makes up the laryngeal floorventrally fused thyroid lamina
What are the two parts of the thyroid cartilageRostral horn & caudal horn
What type of cartilage is the thyroid cartilage made ofhyaline cartilage
What is the shape of the cricoid cartilagea complete ring
What type of cartilage is the cricoid made ofhyaline
What type of cartilage are the arytenoids made ofhyaline & elastic
Whate are the 4 processes of the arytenoid cartilages and where are they locatedvocal (ventrally in lumen), muscular (laterally), corniculate (dorsomedially),cuniform (cranially)
What structures are located in the laryngeal cavityvestibule, glottis, infraglottic space, vesticular & vocal fold, laryngeal ventricles


Laryngeal muscles
Question Answer
What Are the extrensic muscles of the larynxsternothyroideus, thyrohyoideus, hyoepiglotticus, cricopharyngeus, thyropharyngeus
What do the extensic laryngeal muscles doattach to the hyoid apparatus, pharynx,& sternum, provide support, move larynx cranially & caudally
What are intrensic muscles of the larynxcricothyroideus, cricoarytenoideus dorsalis, cricoartenoideus lateralis, thyroarytenoideus
What is the action of the cricothyroideustense the vocal folds
What is the action of the cricoarytenoideus dorsalisabduct arytenoid cartilage
What is the action of the cricoartenoideus lateralisadduct the vocal processes, narrow glottis
What is the action of the thyroarytenoideusconstric glottis
What are the two parts of the thyroarytenoideusVocalis & ventricularis


Laryngeal articulations
Question Answer
What are the articulations of the larynx and what type of joint is eachthyrohyoid articualtion (synchondrosis), cricothyroid articualtion (synovial), cricoarytenoid articualtion (synovial)
Whare are the membranes of the larynxelastic membrane (epiglottic to thyroid), Cricothyroid (elastic)
What are the folds & ligaments of the larynxarvepiglotic fold, vocal fold & vocal ligaments, vestibular fold & vestibular ligament


Laryngeal blood/nerve supply
Question Answer
What are the arteries that supply the larynxcranial tryroid artery, cranial laryngeal artery
What are the nerves that supply the larynxcranial laryngeal, caudal laryngeal

Trachea & Bronchi

Question Answer
Where does the trachea begin and endcricoid cartilage to tracheal bifurcation
How many cartilages are present in the tracheaapprox. 35 rings
Whate type of cartilage is in the tracheahyaline
What bridges the ends of the C rings of the tracheaCT and smooth muscles
What connects C rings to one anotherCT fibers and annular ligaments
Where does the bronchial tree begin and endtracheal bifurcation to alveoli
What is the order of structures in the lung (begining with bronchi)principal/primary bronchi -> lobar/secondary bronchi -> segmental/tertiary bronchi -> respiratory bronchioles -> alveolar ducts -> alveolar sacs / pulmonary alveoli

Thoracic cavity

Question Answer
Where does the throacic cavity begin and endthroacic inlet to diaphram
What lines the throacic cavityendothroacic facia
What structures form the walls of the throacic cavitywalls- ribs & muscles, roof- thoracic vertebrae & muscles, floor-sternum & muscles
What structures for the thoracic inletfirst pair of ribs, first throacic vertebra, manubrium
What kind of tissue is the endothoracic facia and where does it attachareolar; costal & diaphramatic pleurae, bones & muslces
What does the endothoracic facia become after the throacic inletdeep facia of the neck


Question Answer
Which thoracic pleura cover what structuresthe lungs (pulmonary/viceral pleura) & walls of thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
What does the pleurae formmediastinum
What lines the pleuraemesothelium
What is the pleural cavitythe space between viceral and parietal pleura


Question Answer
What is the mediastinumspace between right and left pleural sacs
What layers make up the mediastinum2 mediastinal pleura layers + enclosed CT
What structures are found in the mediastinumtrachea, esophagus, thymus, heart,aorta, nerves & vessels
What are the three regions of the mediastinumcranial, middle,caudal


Question Answer
Lungs ________ (passively / activley) expand and contractpassively
What are te two structures of the lungbase (beside diaphram), apex (near thoracic inlet)
What are the surfaces of the lungcostal, medial/medastinal, diaphragmatic
What are the margins of the lungsdorsal, basal, ventral, acute
What does the hilus doallows structures to enter lung
What is the root of the lungAggregate of strugures entering the lungs
Whate are the two types of fissuresoblique, interlobar
What is the cardiac notchwhere the heart makes contact with the thoracic wall
What are the lobesof the right lungcranial, middle, caudal, accessory
What the lobes of the left lungcranial (cranial & caudal parts), caudal
Where does the heart contact the lungcardiac impression
Where does the diaphram contact the lungdiaphragmaticsurface
Where does the caudal vena cava contact the lungright accessory lobe
Where do the esophagus, trachia, and thymus contact the lobecranial mediastinum


Question Answer
What are the three portions of the diaphragmcrus, tendinous portion, muscular portion
What is the origin of the diaphragmsternum, costo-chondral junctions, cranial lumbar vertebrae
What is the insertion of the diaphragmtendinous center of diaphragm
What are the three openings in the diaphragmaortic hiatus, esophageal hiatus, foramina vena cavae (caval foramen)
What attaches the heart to the diaphragmphrenico-pericardiac ligament

Thoracic Landmarks

Question Answer
The heart is located between what ribs/inter-costal spaces3rd & 6th ribs; 3rd & 5th inter-costal spaces
The olecranon (point of elbow) is at what ICS?5th ICS
The shoulder joint is at the end of what ribdistal end of rib 1
Thebointof shoulder (GT of humerus) is at what pointbehind manubrium
Where are the axillary and assessory axillary lymph nodes palpable (when enlarged)first 5 ribs
Where are ventricular puncter and ultrasound exams performedventral 4th right ICS
What is the landmark for the cranial border of the lung fieldcaudal border of triceps brachii (tricipital line)
What is the landmark for the dorsal border of the lung fieldline of iliocostalis muscle (5th rib to 11th ICS)
What is the landmark for the caudal border of the lung field6th CCJ - middle 6th rib - 11th ICS