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SGU SVM Anatomy I Abdomen & Digestive

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hpaul2's version from 2016-11-22 14:39

Digestive system general

 

Question Answer
Where is the alimentary tractfrom mouth (pharynx) to anus
What structures are in the alimentary canalesophagus, stomach, small intestine, cecum, large intestine
What species has the simplest alimentary canaldog
What are the accessory organsteeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, anal sacs
What two things are common in the digestive tract liningsecretory epithelium and intrinsic glands
memorize

Mouth/oral cavity

Question Answer
What is the outer wall of the mouth calledoral fissure / rima oris
What is the caudal border of the oral cavitypalatoglossal arches
What two organs are found in the mouthtongue & teeth
What structures open into the mouthsalivary glands
What are the functions of the mouthprehension, mastication, insalivation
What types of animals have a wide gapecarnivores
What are the two parts of the oral cavityvestibule & oral cavity proper
Where is the vestibule locatedbetween lips, cheeks, & dental arcades
What two glands open into the vestibuleparotid & zygomatic salivary glands
What species has a wider vestibuledogs
What structures does the oral cavity proper includeteeth, gums, hard & soft palate, mucosa, palatoglossal arches, mandible muscles, hyoid apparatus
What two glands open into the oral cavity propermandibular and monostomatic sublingual salivary glands
memorize

 

Cheeks/Lips
Question Answer
What structure marks the lateral and rostral boundaries of the vestibulelips
What is the scientific name for the lipslabia oris
What are the three layers of the lipsskin, muscles/tendons/CT/glands, & mucosa
What are the glands of the lipslabial glands (minor salivary glands)
What variation in upper lip can the dog havecan be pendulous / cover lower lip
What species has less mobile lips that are reduced in sizecats
What is the scientific name for the cheeksbuccae
What structure forms the caudo-lateral border of the vestibulecheeks
What is the major muscle of the cheeksbuccinators M.
What gland is associated with the cheekszygomatic salivary gland (carnivores)
memorize

 

Palate
Question Answer
What does the palate separaterespiratory and digestive passages
What are the two portions of the palate and how are they describedhard (boney)& soft (membranous)
The palate forms the roof of the ______ and the floor of the ______oral cavity proper / nasal cavity
What is the scientific name for the hard palatepalatum durum
The hard palate is a process of what three bonesincisive, maxillary, & palatine
The hard palate inclines _____ (ventrally/rostrally)ventrally
The transverse ridges of the hard palate are known asrugae
Th opening of the incisive duct is calledincisive papilla
The mucosa of the hard palate is what kind of epitheliumstratified squamous, cornified
What is the scientific name for the soft palatevelum palatinum
What makes up the membranous soft palateCT
What are the two borders of the soft palate and are they fixed or freecranial, fixed & caudal, free
What two structures move with the soft palate to allow deglutitionepiglotic cartilage & pharyngeal muscles
The soft palate normally lies ____ (over/under) the epiglottisover
What are the four structures of the soft palatepalatoglossal arch, palatopharyngeal arch, palatine tonsils, palatine glands
memorize

Pharynx

Question Answer
What does the pharynx connectoral cavity & esophagus
What are the four parts of the pharynx (in rostrally to caudally)oropharynx, nasopharynx, laryngopharynx, interpharyngeal opening (common pharynx)
memorize

Esophagus

Question Answer
What are the cranial and caudal boundaries of the esophaguscricoids cartilage & cardia of stomach
What are the tree parts of the esophaguscervical, thoracic, & abdominal
What two muscles make up the cranial esophageal sphinctercricopharyngeus m. & thyropharyngeus m.
What structures does the cervical esophagus come in contact withtrachea & hypaxial muscles
What surrounds the thoracic portion of the esophagusmediastinum
What structures does the thoracic esophagus come in contact withtrachea, lungs, base of heart
What is the shortest section of the esophagusabdominal
What organ & structure does the abdominal esophagus have contact withesophageal notch of liver
What makes up the tunica muscularis of the esophagusouter longitudinal muscle, inner circular muscle
The outer layer is tunica ____ near the neck and tunica ____ (adventitia/serosa) in the thorax/abdomenadventicia, serosa
What type of glands are found in the esophagus (dog)tubuloacinar mucous glands
What is the difference in the muscular coat of the esophagus in the dog and catdog- striated throughout, cat- smooth caudal 1/3
What two nerves and what plexus serve the esophagusvagus & sympathetic nn. / myenteric plexus
Where are three locations esophageal obstructions are likely to occurthoracic inlet, base of heart, & esophageal hiatus
What animals are prone to develope megaesophaguscarnivores
Where does megaeophagus occurjust before diaphragm
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Abdomen

Question Answer
What forms the abdominal wall and floormuscles of the trunk
What does the abdonnal wall dosupports & protects abdominal viscera, creates & maintains pressureforabdominal press
What are the four abdominal musclesexternal abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, transverses abdominus m., rectus abdominus m.
What are the origin and insertion of the external abdominal obliqueO- rib cate & lumbar region; I- linea alba
What are the origin and insertion of the interal abdominal obliqueO- tuber coxae, aponeurosis of EAO, thrasverse processes of caudal lumbar vertebrae; I- linea alba
What are the origin and insertion of the transverses abdominusO- trqansvers processes of lumbar vertebrae; I- linea alba
What are the origin and insertion of the rectus abdominusO- caudal sternum; I- pubic bone
memorize

 

Abdominal cavity
Question Answer
What covers the orgas of the abdominal cavityperitoneum
What are the two peritoneums and what do they covervisceral peritoneum, organs; parietal peritoneum, abdominal wall/roof/floor
What lies between the visceral and parietal peritoneumperitoneal cavity
What two fascias line the abdominal cavitytrasversalis fascia & diaphragmatic fascia
What part of the peritoneum supports abdominal organs & carries vessels and nervesmesentery
What mesentery covers the peritoneal fold in the stomachomentum
memorize

Stomach

Question Answer
Where is the fundus locateddilated part towards esophagus
Where is the pylorus locatednarrow part toward small intestine
What are the two parts of the pylorispyloric antrum (proximal) & pyloric canal (distal)
What parts of the stomach are on the left and right sides of the abdominal cavityleft- fundus & body; right- pylorus
What are the two surfaces of the stomach and what structures do they come into contact withparietal (diaphragm & liver); visceral (other viscera)
What structure attaches the stomach to the liverlesser omentum
The greater omentum includes what organ and structurespleen & gastrosplenic ligament
When does the stomach rest on the abdominal floorwhen very full, in puppies
What structures are found in the tunica mucosa of the stomachgastric glands
What are the layers of the tunica muscularisouter longitudinal, inner circular
What are the two sphincters of the stomach and what changes in the tunica musculairs at these locationscardiac & pyloric sphincters, thickened
memorize

Small intestines

Question Answer
What part of the SI is the most fixedduodenum
What are the three parts of the duodenum and on what side are they locateddescending (right), transverse (across), ascending (left)
What are the two openings in the duodenum and what connects to themmajor duodenal palillae – common bild duct; minor duodenal papillae- accessory pancreatic ducts
What is the mesentary associated with the duodenummeso-duodenum
What is the most flexible/free portion of the SIjejunum
What forms the opening of the ileum into the large intestineileal orifice forming ileal palilla
What guards the ileal orificea sphincter
What mesentery suspends the jejunum from the dorsal abdominal wallgreat mesentery
Where is the jejunum located in relation to the stomachventrolateral to stomach
memorize

Large intestine

Question Answer
What are the three parts of the LIcecum, colon, rectum
What is the cecum/where is it locatedblind sac, b/w ileum & colon
What is the opening and guarding structure of the cecum calledceco-colic opening, ceco-colic sphincter
What are the three parts of the colon and what side of the mesentery are they located onascending- right; transverse- across; descending- left
What mesentery suspends the colonmesocolon
What attaches the ascending colon to the duodenumduodenocolic fold
What mesentery suspends the rectummesorectum
Where does the rectum beginpelvic inlet
What part of the rectum is the anal canalcaudal 1 cm
memorize

Tongue

Question Answer
What are the functions of the tonguedeglutaition, taste, prehension
In what animals is prehension not a major tongue functioncarnivores
What are the three parts of the tongue and which are fixed and freefixed root & body, free apex
What is the ventral median mucosal fold of the tongue calledfrenulum linguae
What are the three structures of the tonguefrenulum linguae,sublingual caruncles, median sulcus
Describe the tunica mucosa of the tonguerough, tightly adhered, w/papillae
Which papillae are the smalles and most numerousfilliform papillae
Which papillae are the most caudalconical papillae
Which species has conical papillae throughout the tonguecats
What papillae does the cat lackfilliform papillae
Which papillae are mushroom shapedfungiform
Where are fungiform papillae locatedrostral 2/3
Where are Vallate papillae locatedcaudal third
Where are foliate papillae locateddorsolateral caudal aspect of tongue
Which papillae have taste budsgustatory papillae – fungiform, vallate, foliate
What papillae are found only in youngmarginal papillae
What structure is found in the tongue of the carnivorelyssa
What are the extrinsic muscles of the tonguestyloglossus m., hyoglossus m., genioglossus m.
What are the intrinsic muscles of the tonguesuperficial longitudinal fibers, deep longitudinal fibers, transvers & perpendicular fibers
memorize

Teeth

Question Answer
What type of dentition is replaced multiple times in the life spanpolyphyodonty
What type of dentition is replaced once in the life spandiphyodonty
What is the dental formula for the canine deciduous teethI-3/3; C-1/1; P-3/3
At what age do canine deciduous teen erupt3 weeks
What is the dental formula for the canine permanent teethI-3/3; C-1/1; P-4/4; M-2/3
What is the dental formula for the feline deciduous teethI-3/3; C-1/1; P-3/2
At what age do canine deciduous teen erupt2 weeks
What is the dental formula for the canine permanent teethI-3/3; C-1/1; P-3/2; M-1/1
What are the three parts of the toothcrown, root, & neck
What are the 4 layers of the tooth (from outside in)enamel (crown)/cementum (root), dentine, pulp/pulp cavity
What opening allows nerves and vessles into the pulp cavityapical foramen
What attaches the tooth root to the socketperiodontal ligament
What are the three surface of the toothlabial, lingual, occlusive
What is the space separating teeth of different functionsdiastema
What are the four types of teethincisor, canine, premolar, molar
What are the carnassial/sectorial teeth (dens sectroius)superior fourth premolar & inferior first molar
What are the sectorial teeth used forshearing
What is the articulation of a tooth calledgomphosis
What makes up the periodontiumcementum, alveolar bone (of socket), periodontal ligament
What does the periodontium allow forlimited movement during mastication
memorize

Salivary glands

Question Answer
What are the functions of the salivalubrication, moistening, & amylase
Where are minor salivary glands foundlips, cheeks, & tongue
What minor salivary gland in dogs and catszygomatic
What type of secretions do minor salivary glands havemucous
What are the major salivary glandsparotid, mandibular, sublingual
Where is the parotid salivary gland locatedbelow the auricular cartilage
What type of secretion does the parotid makemucous
Where does the parotid salivary duct open into the vestibule4th upper premolar
Where is the mandibular salivary gland locatedalong the mandible
What type of secretion doe the mandibular makeserous + mucous
Where does the mandibular salivary duct open into the oral cavitythe sublingual caruncle
What type of secretion does the sublingual salivary gland makemixed
Where does the sublingual salivary gland open into the oral cavityalongise the mandibular salivary duct
What are the two parts of the sublingual salivary glanddiffused & polystomatic
How does the polystomatic sublingual salivary gland emptythough numerous ducts along frenulum linguae
memorize

Liver

Question Answer
What are the functions of the liverbile production,protein/carbohydrate/fat metabolism
What are the two surfaces and two borders of the liverparietal & visceral surfaces , dorsal & ventral borders
What ligaments attach the parietal siver surface to the diaphragmright/left triangular ligaments, coronary ligament, falciform ligament
What structures is the parietal surface of the liver associated withdiaphragm & body wall
What structures is the visceral surface of the liver associated withStomach & viscera
What shape is the parietal surface of the liverconvex
What shape is the visceral surface of the liverconcave (w/ impressions of organs)
What structures is the dorsal border of the liver in contact withcaudal vena cava & esophagus (notches); right kidney (impression)
What surface or border shows fissures that divide the liver into lobesventral boarder
What are the four liver lobesright (lateral & medial), left (lateral & medial), quadrate, caudate
What are the processes of the caudate lobecaudate process & papillary process
What divides the lobes into lobulesfibrous tissue trabaculae
On what surface is the hilus and rootvisceral surface
What structures pass though the liver hilusportal vein, common bile duct, hepatic ducts, gall bladder, cystic duct, caudal vena cava, round ligament, falciform ligament
memorize

Pancreas

Question Answer
What part of the small intestine is the pancreas associated withduodenum
What are the three sections of the pancreasleft lobe, right lobe, body
Where does the pancreatic duct open intothe major duodenal papilla (w/ bile duct)
Where does the accessory pancreatic duct open intothe minor duodenal papilla
memorize

Digestive blood supply

Question Answer
What is the main supplying artery to the stomachceliac artery
What are the three branches of the celiac arteryhepatic, splenic, left gastric
What is the minor supplying artery to the stomachshort gastric arteries
memorize