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Set 9 - Chapter 7 - Understanding Genetics - McGraw-Hill's

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celine's version from 2018-02-03 13:58

Section

Question Answer
——————— used experiments in pea plants to discover the basic principles of inheritance.Gregor Mendel
Mendel discovered that each trait he studied was caused by two ———————, one from each of a plant's parents. Different traits are caused by alternate versions of each allele.Alleles
——————— describes the allele's in an organism's genes.Genotype
——————— describes the physical traits of that organism.Phenotype
Having two identical alleles for a particular geneHomozygous
Having two different alleles for a particular geneHeterozygous
If an organism has 2 different alleles, the allele that is displayed in the phenotype is called ——————— and the allele that is hidden is the ———————Dominant, Recessive
Organisms pass one of the alleles (not both) on to their offspring; this is known as ———————.Mendel's law of segregation
Mendel's ——————— holds that the alleles for different traits are inherited independently of each other. Organisms may pass on alleles in a different combination than how they inherited them. Law of Independent assortment
——————— is the genetic material. It encodes instructions for proteins in discrete units known as ——————— and these are responsible for all of our traits.DNA, genes
Organisms have ——————— alleles for the same gene result from copies of genes located on ———————. Different alleles for a gene are caused by differing ——————— in a gene.2, homologous chromosomes, nucleotide sequences
Independent assortment of traits is a result of the independent assortment of ———————, and the ——————— of DNA during meiosis. chromosomes, crossing over
Genes that are located close to each other on the same chromosome are often inherited together; these linked genes are an exception to Mendel's law of Independent assortment
The improper separation of chromosomes during meiosis which results in chromosomal aberrationsNondisjunction
Genetic technology can be used to ——————— DNA and to rapidly copy it for other uses. Scientists also use ——————— technology to insert a gene from one organism into another. sequence, recombinant DNA
Many genes are inherited in more complex ways than through simple Mendelian, ——————— inheritance.dominant-recessive
Certain traits are inherited by ———————, in which a heterozygous individual has an intermediate phenotype between the dominant and recessive phenotype. incomplete dominance
For certain characteristics, there are more than 2 possible alleles for a single trait, such as in blood groups. This is know as ———————multiple alleles
Certain traits are passed not on the somatic chromosomes, but on the ———————, which determine the sex of an individual (XX = female & XY = male). The patterns of inheritance for such sex-linked genes depend greatly on the sex of the individuals. sex chromosomes
Traits like height & skin color are influenced by the alleles on more than one gene; this is known as ———————polygenic inheritance
Certain genes are carried on DNA found in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Such genes are called ——————— because these organelles are carried in the cytoplasm of the mother to the offspring.cytoplasmic genes
Factors as the interactions of proteins and an organism's environment will affect the way that genes are ———————expressed
——————— are useful tools in modelling the possible outcomes of a specific cross.Punnett square
To complete a Punnett square, you must identify the ——————— that will be passed on by the parents, and arrange them on the top and sides of Punnett square; figure out the ——————— of the alleles that will be produced by filling in the square; and match the genotypes that are produced to their respective ———————. alleles, genotypes, phenotypes
——————— may be used to model many different crosses, including the inheritance of more than one trait, inherited of sex-linked genes, and the inheritance of traits with multiple alleles. Punnett squares
——————— are useful tools for examining the inheritance of traits across generations. They indicate the sex of an individual and whether or not the individual is affected by a trait.Pedigrees
When interpreting a pedigree, start by marking the ——————— of the individuals you know, and then try to logically figure out the genotype of the individuals you do not know.genotype
Occasionally, a ——————— may come in handy to figure out certain parts of a pedigree.Punnet square
When interpreting a pedigree, remember that a cross of 2 recessive individuals can never give a ——————— result, and that a dominant trait can never ——————— generations. dominant, skip
Sex linked traits have unique, ——————— patterns of inheritance that can be used to identify them on a pedigree.sex-dependent
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