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Set 8 - Part 4 - Chapter 13 - Plants - Barron's

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celine's version from 2018-03-15 00:51

Section 1

Question Answer
Alternation of generations
The life cycle of plants with a multicellular sporophyte, which is diploid, that alternates with a multicellular gametophyte, which is haploidAlternation of generations
_________ refers to a lifecycle in which there is a dominant haploid stage (1n), while _________ refers to a lifecycle in which the diploid (2n) is the dominant life stage.Haplontic, diplontic
Humans are _________.diplontic
Most plants exhibit alternation of generations, which is described as _________.haplodiplodontic
The life cycle of all plants is complex because it is characterized by _________.alternation of generations
Plants alternate between _________ sporophyte and _________ gametophyte generations, and between sexual and asexual reproduction.diploid, haploid
Alternation of generations can be summarized in four steps:1. The gametophyte produces the gametes, or sperm and egg, by mitosis. Remember, gametes are haploid. 2. Then, the sperm fertilizes the egg, producing a diploid zygote that develops into the sporophyte. 3. The diploid sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis The haploid spores go through mitosis, developing into the gametophyte
Describes how plants alternate between diploid-cell and haploid-cell stages during their life cycle.Alternation of generations
Having two sets of chromosomes.Diploid
Haploid generation in the life cycle of a plant.Gametophyte
Having one set of chromosomes, like sperm and egg.Haploid
Reproductive structure; can be adapted for dispersal and survival in unfavorable conditions; found in bacteria, plants, algae, fungi, and some protozoaSpore
Diploid generation in the life cycle of a plant.Sporophyte
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Section 2

Question Answer
All plants exhibit alternation of generations. This means their life cycle hasboth a multicellular haploid stage and a multicellular diploid stage.
The plant life cycle has both a sporophyte and a gametophyte generation. In the sporophyte stage,meiosis occurs.
In plants, gametes are produced directly after _________.mitosis
Which character is seen in the gymnosperms, but is not seen in other seeded vascular plants?exposed seeds
Plants have a/an _________ life cycle.alternation of generations
The gametophyte is the generation that produces the gametes.gametes
The sporophyte generation is the generation that produces spores by meiosis.spores
In plants, the dominant generation is _________.the larger and more conspicuous generation
What is the function of antheridia?to produce sperm
What is the function of the archegonium?to produce eggs
Archegonia produce _________; antheridia produce _________.eggs, sperm
In vascular plants, _________ generation is dominant.the diploid sporophyte
What two groups of plants produce seeds?gymnosperms and angiosperms
The gymnosperms produce ______ seeds meaning that they are NOT enclosed by fruits.uncovered or "naked"
Angiosperms produce covered seeds enclosed by fruits.Angiosperms
In seed plants a microspore develops into _________.a pollen grain
In seed plants a megaspore develops into _________.an egg-bearing female gametophyte
In seed plants, after fertilization the zygote becomes ___________.an embryo that is enclosed with reserve food and the seed coat
The part of a flower that becomes the fruit is _________.the ovary
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Section 3

Question Answer
Structure that produces spermAntheridium
Structure that produces eggsArchegonium
Haploid plantGametophyte
Produced by large female cones; develops into female gametophytesMegaspore
Produced by small male cones; develops into male gametophytes or pollen grainsMicrospore
Branching one-celled thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores; becomes the gametophyte in moss.Protonema
Located on mature sporophyte, where meiosis occurs, producing haploid spores.Sporangia
Diploid plant sporophyte
Raised spots located on the underside of sporophyte ferns; clusters of sporangiaSori
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Section 4

Question Answer
Mosses & other Bryophytes
Mosses arethe green, carpetlike plants seen growing in damp forests, sometimes on fallen logs. they are primitive plants. the gametophyte generation dominates the life cycle. this means that the organism is haploid (n) for most of its life cycle, and the sporophyte (2n) is dependent on the gametophyte.
________ are primitive plants. Mosses
In mosses the ________ generation dominates the life cycle. gametophyte
In the most primitive plants, like mosses, the ________ is dominant (i.e. it's big and green).gametophyte
Bryophytes also need a _________ to reproduce. Their flagellated sperm must swim through water to reach the egg. So mosses and liverworts are restricted to moist habitats. There are no mosses in the desert.moist environment
Mosses and liverworts are lumped together as _________, plants lacking true vascular tissues, and sharing a number of other primitive traits.bryophytes
The leafy green plant that we see when we look at a moss or a liverwort is really the _________, which is the dominant stage in all bryophytes.gametophyte
The _________ of bryophytes do not have a free-living existence. They grow directly out of the fertilized egg in the archegonia, and remain dependent on the parent gametophyte for their nutrition.sporophytes
_________ are the most primitive living land plants.Mosses
In mosses, the gametophyte obtains nutrients by ________. The sporophyte obtains its nutrients from the ________. photosynthesis, gametophyte
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Section 5

Question Answer
Ferns/non-seed tracheophytes
TracheophytesVascular plants
Any plant possessing vascular tissue (xylem and phloem), including ferns, conifers, and flowering plantsTracheophyte
The fern is a seedless vascular plant and is intermediate between the primitive _________ and and the flowering vascular plants.bryophytes,
Ferns often are called the amphibians of the plant world for although their sporophytes are well‐adapted to life on dry land, their gametophytes require a _________ to grow vegetatively and to reproduce sexually.moist habitat
On one level the _________ (xylem and phloem) separates the ferns and their allies from the bryophytes and the _________ from the gymnosperms and angiosperms.possession of vascular tissue, lack of seeds
In ferns, the _________ is the dominant, often branched, long‐lived phase (the leafy fern plant is the sporophyte, for example).sporophyte
In ferns, both sporophyte and gametophyte sustain themselves by ________photosynthesis
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Section 6

Question Answer
Seed plants
Seed plants are divided into 2 groups, ________ & ________.flowering plants (angiosperms) and conifers (gymnosperm)
In the flowering plants, the________ exists inside the sporophyte generation, and is totally dependent on the ________.gametophyte generation, sporophyte
In a gymnosperm, the ________ develops from the haploid spores that are retained within the ________.gametophyte generation, sporangia
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