Set 8 - Chapter 10 - Part 3- Molecular Genetics - Barron's

celine's version from 2018-02-02 17:31

Section 1

Question Answer
Changes in the genetic materialMutation
A permanent alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene, such that the sequence differs from what is found in most people..Gene mutation
Mutations which are inherited from a parent and are present throughout a person’s life in virtually every cell in the body. Hereditary mutations
Mutations that occur at some time during a person’s life and are present only in certain cells, not in every cell in the body. Acquired (or somatic) mutations
A mutation that only affects a single nucleotide of nucleic acid. Point mutation
Point mutations most commonly involve the ___________ of one base for anothersubstitution
A mutation where one nucleotide is substituted for a correct one in the DNA strand.Base-pair substitution
Example for a inherited genetic disorder results from a point mutationSickle cell anemia
A mutation where one nucleotide inserts itself into an existing strand. Insertion
A mutation where a piece of gene, or chromosome lostDeletion
A reading frame consists of groups of ___________ that each code for one amino acid. 3 bases
An error in the DNA in which the entire reading frame is altered. This can be caused by an insertion or deletionFrameshift
___________ are alterations in chromosome number or structure and are visible under a microscope.Chromosome mutation
Each species has a characteristic chromosome number, such as 46 for a typical human body cell. In organisms with two full chromosomes sets, such as humans, this number is given the name 2n. When an organism or cell contains 2n chromosomes, it is said to be euploid
If a cell contains chromosomes correctly organized into complete sets (eu = good).euploid
If a cell is missing one or more chromosomes, it is said to beaneuploid (an- = not, "not good")
Human somatic cells with chromosome numbers of (2n-1) = 45 or (2n + 1) = 47 are aneuploid
___________ is when an organism has only one copy of a chromosome that should be present in two copies (2n-1)Monosomy
___________is when an organism has a third copy of a chromosome that should be present in two copies (2n+1)Trisomy
Organisms with more than two complete sets of chromosomes are said to be ___________ polyploid
3n or 4npolyploid
Aneuploidy and polyploidy both result from ___________nondisjunction
Occurs when pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis I or II (or during mitosis).nondisjunction
The most common trisomy among embryos that survive to birth isDown syndrome, or trisomy 21
The human genome consists of ___________ base pairs of DNA and about ___________3 billion, 30,000
97% of our DNA does NOT code for protein product and has often been calledjunk

Section 2

Question Answer
Taking DNA from two sources and combining them in one cell.Recombinant DNA
The branch of science that uses recombinant DNA techniques for practical purposes.Genetic Engineering/Biotechnology
The use of an organism, or a component of an organism or other biological system, to make a product or process.Biotechnology
__________ is the sequencing, analysis, and cutting-and-pasting of DNA.DNA technology (Many forms of modern biotechnology rely on DNA technology)
Common forms of DNA technology include DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, DNA cloning, and gel electrophoresis.
The process of determining the sequence of nucleotides (As, Ts, Cs, and Gs) in a piece of DNA.DNA sequencing
A technique to make many copies of a specific DNA region in vitro (in a test tube rather than an organism).Polymerase chain reaction, or PCR
PCR requires a DNA polymerase enzyme that makes new strands of DNA, using existing strands as templates. The DNA polymerase typically used in PCR is calledTaq polymerase
A short sequence of nucleotides that provides a starting point for DNA synthesisPrimer
Like other DNA polymerases, Taq polymerase can only make DNA if it's given a __________Primer
PCR primers are short pieces of single-stranded DNA, usually around ___________ in length.20 nucleotides
The key ingredients of a PCR reaction are ___________, ___________, ___________, ___________. The ingredients are assembled in a tube, along with cofactors needed by the enzyme, and are put through repeated cycles of heating and cooling that allow DNA to be synthesized.Taq polymerase, primers, template DNA, and nucleotides (DNA building blocks)
A molecular biology technique that makes multiple, identical copies of a particular piece of DNADNA cloning
In a typical DNA cloning procedure, the gene or other DNA fragment of interest is first inserted into a circular piece of DNA called a ___________.Plasmid
In DNA cloning, the insertion is done using enzymes that “cut and paste” DNA. These enzymes are Restriction enzymes & DNA ligase
A DNA-cutting enzyme that recognizes a specific target sequence and cuts DNA into two pieces at or near that site. Restriction enzyme
A DNA-joining enzyme. If two pieces of DNA have matching ends, it can link them to form a single, unbroken molecule of DNA.DNA ligase
___________ seals the gap between the molecules, forming a single piece of DNA.DNA ligase
Restriction enzymes recognize and bind to specific sequences of DNA, called ___________. Each restriction enzyme recognizes just one or a few restriction sites. When it finds its target sequence, a restriction enzyme will make a ___________ in the DNA molecule. Typically, the cut is at or near the restriction site.Restriction sites, double-stranded cut
Restriction enzymes are also known as Molecular scissors
The pieces of DNA that result from the cuts made by restriction enzymes are calledRestriction fragments
You want to check and see whether your PCR worked, or whether your plasmid has the right gene in it. What technique can you use to visualize the fragments of DNA?Gel electrophoresis
___________ is a technique used to separate DNA fragments based on their size and charge. Gel electrophoresis
___________involves running a current through a gel containing the molecules of interest. Based on their size and charge, the molecules will travel through the gel in different directions or at different speeds, allowing them to be separated from one another. Gel electrophoresis
A scientist wants to compare the DNA of two plants. What technique can she use to produce bands of DNA fragments for this comparison?Gel electrophoresis
A technique known as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is able to produce millions of copies of a DNA molecule in only a few hours. Which cellular process is PCR most similar to?Replication