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Set 7 - Part 4 - Chapter 13 - Plants - Barron's

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celine's version from 2018-03-14 20:22

Section 1

Question Answer
Pollination and Fertilization in flowering plants/Angiosperms
Sexual reproduction begins with __________Pollination
The transfer of the male sperm carried in the pollen to the female part of a flower, the stigma is called __________ Pollination
__________ of flowering plants is the result of the male sperm in the pollen uniting with the female egg in a flower.Sexual reproduction
Plants rely on wind and water to transfer the pollen. In addition, plants depend on animals to help with pollination. Birds, insects, bats, and other animals are attracted to scented or brightly colored flowers. These animals transfer pollen from the anthers of the flowers they visit to the stigmas of other flowers.pollen, animals,
When the pollen of a plant pollinates a flower on the same plant, the process is called __________.self-pollination
When the pollen of a plant pollinates the flower on another plant of the same species, the process is called __________.cross-pollination
Once the pollen lands on the stigma, it grows a thin __________ down the style to the ovary. The cell within the grain of pollen divides to form __________. The sperm cells, or male gametes, travel down the pollen tube to an ovule that holds the egg or female gamete.. pollen tube, two sperm nuclei,
__________ is the fusion of a sperm with an egg.Fertilization
Both the sperm and the egg are __________, meaning they contain a single set of chromosomes.haploid
Fertilization unites the single set of chromosomes in the sperm nucleus with the single set of chromosomes in the egg nucleus. This enables the fertilized egg, or zygote, to have a __________ of chromosomes.complete pair
A cell with two sets of chromosomes is termed __________.diploid
Many grasses and flowering plants have three or more sets of chromosomes. They are called __________. Plants with extra sets of chromosomes are typically larger and more vigorous than diploid members of the same species.polyploid
In flowering plants, fertilization is unlike that of any other living organism. Pollen of a flowering plant contains two sperm nuclei. Both sperm nuclei from the pollen grain are involved in fertilization. This fertilization process is actually a __________.double fertilization
The fertilization process of flowering plants is a __________.double fertilization
Double fertilizationThe first fertilization occurs when one of the sperm fuses with the egg. The resulting zygote contains genetic material from both the male and female parts of a flower. Through cellular division, the zygote becomes the embryo, or immature plant. In the second fertilization, the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei in the ovule. The combination of the three nuclei makes a triploid cell that multiples by mitosis. It eventually develops into the endosperm. The endosperm is food storage tissue in the seed, which is used by the embryo.
The first fertilization occurs when one of the sperm fuses with the egg. The resulting __________ contains genetic material from both the male and female parts of a flower. Through cellular division, the zygote becomes the __________, or __________. In the second fertilization, the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei in the ovule. The combination of the three nuclei makes a triploid cell that multiples by mitosis. It eventually develops into the __________. The endosperm is __________ in the seed, which is used by the embryo.zygote, embryo, immature plant, endosperm, food storage tissue
Following fertilization, the ovule develops into a __________. The seed contains the embryo plant and stored food. seed
What are the major parts of a seed?A seed consists of an embryo, stored food, and a seed coat.
The ovary ripens and becomes the __________. Fruit serves the purpose of protecting seeds from __________. It also aids in the __________ of seeds.fruit, drying, dispersal
As the fertilized egg, or zygote, grows and develops, it becomes the __________ of the seed.embryo
The __________ is an immature plant held in a dormant, or resting, phase inside the seed. embryo
What are the parts of an embryo?It has a stem, a root, and one or two seed leaves called cotyledons.
The embryonic root is called the __________.radicle
__________ forms the first root of the plant and is the first structure to emerge as germination begins.radicle
The portion of the embryonic stem below the attachment of the cotyledon is the __________l. The portion of the embryonic stem above the attachment of the cotyledon is the __________.hypocotyl, epicotyl
The hypocotyl develops into the__________.true stem
The __________ develops into a pair of small leaves. epicotyl
The tip of the epicotyl may also be known as the __________. The plumule is the terminal bud of the first shoot to emerge from the seed.plumule
The seed contains stored food to support the development and growth of the __________. This food is stored in the area of the seed known as either the endosperm or the cotyledon.embryo
The seed has a protective shell called a __________.seed coat
A monocot plant stores the bulk of its energy in the __________. A dicot plant stores its food in the __________.endosperm, two cotyledons
Pollination in most gymnosperms and some angiosperms is carried out by __________wind
Which term applies to the chromosome number of a seed plant embryo? diploid
In an angiosperm, a structure that results from fertilization is the zygote
The pollen-producing structure of angiosperms is theanther
How does pollination differ between angiosperms and gymnosperms?Most gymnosperms and some angiosperms are wind pollinated, whereas most angiosperms are pollinated by animals.
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
Reproduction in gymnosperms/seed-bearing plants/fruitless seed plants
Reproduction in gymnosperms takes place in __________, which are produced by a mature sporophyte plant.cones
Gymnosperms produce two types of cones: __________ and __________.pollen cones and seed cones
Pollen cones produce the __________, also called __________.male gametophytes/pollen grains
Seed cones produce __________ and are generally larger than pollen cones. female gametophytes
Female gametophytes develop in two __________.ovules
In a gymnosperm, fertilization occurs inside the __________ovule
Gymnosperms produce both male and female gametophytes on __________ and rely on wind for pollination.separate cones
In conifers such as pines, the green leafy part of the plant is the __________.sporophyte
Sporophyte generates __________ containing male and female gametophytescones
__________ cones are bigger than male cones and are located higher up in the tree.Female
Male GametophyteA male cone has a central axis on which bracts, a type of modified leaf, are attached. The bracts, known as microsporophylls, are the sites where microspores will develop. The microspores develop inside the microsporangium. Within the microsporangium, cells known as microsporocytes divide by meiosis to produce four haploid microspores. Further mitosis of the microspore produces two nuclei: the generative nucleus and the tube nucleus. Upon maturity, the male gametophyte (pollen) is released from the male cones and is carried by the wind to land on female cones.
A male cone has a central axis on which __________, a type of modified leaf, are attached. The bracts, known as __________, are the sites where __________ will develop. The microspores develop inside the __________. Within the microsporangium, cells known as __________ divide by meiosis to produce four haploid __________. Further mitosis of the microspore produces two nuclei: the generative nucleus and the tube nucleus. Upon maturity, the male gametophyte (pollen) is released from the male cones and is carried by the wind to land on female cones.bracts, microsporophylls, microspores, microsporangium, microsporocytes, microspores,
Female GametophyteThe female cone also has a central axis on which bracts known as megasporophylls are present. In the female cone, megaspore mother cells are present in the megasporangium. The megaspore mother cell divides by meiosis to produce four haploid megaspores. One of the megaspores divides to form the multicellular female gametophyte, while the others divide to form the rest of the structure. The female gametophyte is contained within a structure called the archegonium.
The female cone also has a central axis on which bracts known as __________ are present. In the female cone, megaspore mother cells are present in the __________. The megaspore mother cell divides by meiosis to produce __________. One of the megaspores divides to form the multicellular __________, while the others divide to form the rest of the structure. The female gametophyte is contained within a structure called the__________.megasporophylls, megasporangium, four haploid megaspores, female gametophyte, archegonium
Reproductive ProcessUpon landing on the female cone, the tube cell of the pollen forms the pollen tube, through which the generative cell migrates towards the female gametophyte through the micropyle. It takes approximately one year for the pollen tube to grow and migrate towards the female gametophyte. The male gametophyte containing the generative cell splits into two sperm nuclei, one of which fuses with the egg, while the other degenerates. After fertilization of the egg, the diploid zygote is formed, which divides by mitosis to form the embryo. The scales of the cones are closed during development of the seed. The seed is covered by a seed coat, which is derived from the female sporophyte. Seed development takes another one to two years. Once the seed is ready to be dispersed, the bracts of the female cones open to allow the dispersal of seed; no fruit formation takes place because gymnosperm seeds have no covering.
Upon landing on the female cone, the tube cell of the pollen forms the __________, through which the generative cell migrates towards the female gametophyte through the __________. It takes approximately one year for the pollen tube to grow and migrate towards the female gametophyte. The male gametophyte containing the generative cell splits into__________, one of which fuses with the egg, while the other degenerates. After fertilization of the egg, the __________ is formed, which divides by mitosis to form the __________. The scales of the cones are closed during development of the seed. The seed is covered by a __________, which is derived from the __________. Seed development takes another one to two years. Once the seed is ready to be dispersed, the __________ of the female cones open to allow the dispersal of seed; no fruit formation takes place because gymnosperm seeds have__________.the pollen tube, micropyle, two sperm nuclei, diploid zygote, embryo, seed coat, female sporophyte, bracts, no covering
A male cone contains __________ where male gametophytes ( pollen ) are produced and are later carried by wind to female gametophytes.microsporophylls
The megaspore mother cell in the female cone divides by __________ to produce four haploid megaspores; one of the megaspores divides to form the female gametophyte.meiosis
The male gametophyte lands on the female cone, forming a __________ through which the generative cell travels to meet the female gametophyte.pollen tube
One of the two sperm cells released by the generative cell fuses with the egg, forming a __________ that divides to form the __________.diploid zygote, embryo
Bears megasporangium, which produces megaspores that divide into the female gametophytemegasporophyll
A leaflike organ that bears microsporangium, which produces microspores that divide into the male gametophyte (pollen)microsporophyll
Angiosperms reproduction Versus Gymnosperms reproductionIn angiosperms, the female gametophyte in the ovule exists in an enclosed structure, the ovary; in gymnosperms, the female gametophyte is present on exposed bracts of the female cone and is not enclosed in an ovary. Double fertilization is a key event in the life cycle of angiosperms, but is completely absent in gymnosperms. The male and female gametophyte structures are present on separate male and female cones in gymnosperms, whereas in angiosperms, they are a part of the flower. Finally, wind plays an important role in pollination in gymnosperms because pollen is blown by the wind to land on the female cones. Although many angiosperms are also wind-pollinated, animal pollination is more common.
In angiosperms, the female gametophyte in the ovule exists in an enclosed structure, the __________; in gymnosperms, the female gametophyte is present on exposed bracts of the female cone and is __________ in an ovary. ovary, not enclosed
Double fertilization is a key event in the life cycle of __________, but is completely absent in __________. angiosperms, gymnosperms
The male and female gametophyte structures are present on __________ male and female cones in gymnosperms, whereas in angiosperms, they are a part of the __________.separate, flower
Wind plays an important role in pollination in __________ because pollen is blown by the wind to land on the female cones. Although many __________are also wind-pollinated, animal pollination is more common.gymnosperms, angiosperms
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