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Set 7 - Chapter 12 - Taxonomy - Part 3 - Barron's

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celine's version from 2018-03-04 20:58

Section

Question Answer
Kingdom Animalia are grouped into _____________ phyla, primarily based on anatomical features and embryonic development.35
Major 9 Animal Phyla in the Kingdom Animalia1. Porifera 2. Cnidarians 3. Platyhelminthes 4. Nematodes 5. Annelids 6. Mollusks 7. Arthropods 8. Echinoderms 9. Chordates
Porifera - Sponges1. No symmetry 2. No muscles or nerves 3. Do not move 4. Reproduce asexually by fragmentation 5. Also reproduce sexually 6. Are hermaphrodites 7. 2 Cell layers; ectoderm & mesoderm
Cnidarians - Hydra & Jellyfish1. Radial symmetry 2. Body shape; polyp or medusa. Polyp is vase shaped & mostly sessile. Medusa is upside down bowl shaped which is mostly motile. 3. Have lysosomes (for intracellular digestion) and gastrovacular cavities (for extracellular digestion). 4. Have no transport system 5. Have stinging cells, cnidocytes 6. 2 Cell layers; ectoderm & mesoderm
Platyhelminthes - Flatworms including Tapeworms1. Have bilateral symmetry 2. 3 Cell layers; ectoderm, endoderm & mesoderm 3. Have flat & thin body so that the cells can exchange nutrients and wastes by diffusion with environment. 4. The digestive cavity has only one opening for both ingestion & egestion
Nematodes - Roundwormsparasitic, unsegmented, bilateral symmetry
Annelids - Earthworms & Leeches1. Are segmented worms with bilateral symmetry 2. Digestive tract has crop, gizzard, and intestine 3. Has nephridia for excretion of urea 4. Has closed circulatory system 5. Blood contains hemoglobin 5. Are hermaphrodites (reproduce sexually and sexually).
Mollusks - Squids, Octopuses, Slugs, Clams, & Snails1. Have soft body protected by a calcium shell 2. Have an OPEN circulatory system with blood filled spaces called sinuses or hemocoels 3.Have bilateral symmetry with head-foot, visceral mass, & mantle 4. Have radula which acts like tongue 5. Most have gills & nephridia
Arthropods - Insecta (Grasshopper), Crustacea (Shrimp, Crab), Arachnida (Spider)1. Have jointed appendages 2. Bodies of arthropods are segmented (abdomen, head, thorax) 3. Have open circulatory system with tubular heart, sinuses and hemocoels 4. Have chitinous exoskeleton of arthropods for protection and movement 5. Malpighian tubules for the removal of wastes
Echinoderms (Sea Stars) and Sea Urchins1. Most are sessile or slow moving 2. Have bilateral symmetry as an embryo but have radial symmetry as an adult 3. have a water vascular system for locomotion 4. Reproduce sexually with external fertilization 5.Can also reproduce by fragmentation & regeneration 6. Have an endoskeleton with calcium plates & have an exoskeleton
Chordates - Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals1. Have a notochord 2. Have a dorsal, hollow nerve cord 3. Have tail for movement & balance. The coccyx bone in humans is a vestige of a tail 4. Birds & mammals are homeotherms (consistent body temperature) and fish, amphibians, & reptiles are cold blooded.
Mammals - Characteristics1. Are endotherms/homeotherms/warm-blooded 2. Most are placental, some are marsupial, and a few are egg-laying mammals (monotremes) 3. Have hair or fur 4. Have mammary glands to produce milk for the babies
EutheriansPlacental mammals
Example for a marsupialKangaroo
MonotremesEgg laying mammals (duck billed platypus & the spiny anteater)
Primates - Humans, gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, gibbons, old & new world monkeys1. Usually have single births and nurture their young 2. Have dexterous hands & opposable thumbs to do fine motor tasks 3. In primates, claws are replaced by nails 4. Hands & fingers contain many nerve endings and are sensitive
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