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Set 7 - Chapter 10 - Part 2- Molecular Genetics - Barron's

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celine's version from 2018-02-02 17:30

Section 1

Question Answer
The scientist who discovered the natural phenomenon known as bacterial transformationFrederick Griffith
The ability of bacteria to alter their genetic makeup by absorbing foreign DNA molecules from other bacterial cells and incorporating the foreign DNA into their own. Bacterial transformation
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty (1944) published their classic findings that the molecule that Griffith's bacteria was transferring was, in fact,___________. They provided direct experimental evidence that DNA is the genetic material.DNA
___________ proved that DNA, not proteins, is the molecule of inheritance when they tagged bacteriophages with the radioactive isotopes 32P and 35SHershey and Chase (1952)
Watson and Crick's most crucial clues to DNA's structure came from __________ who carried out X-ray crystallography analysis of DNA that showed DNA to be a helix.Rosalind Franklin
___________ received the Nobel prize in 1962 for correctly describing the structure of DNA as a double helix.Watson and Crick
The Griffith experiment showed that certain strains of Streptococcus bacteria could transform from one strain to another when combined. How did the Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment expand on Frederick Griffith's observations?It suggested that DNA is the “transforming principle."
A famous experiment demonstrated that DNA could direct viral replication, providing evidence that DNA is the genetic material. Which scientists were directly involved in this experiment?Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
During their experiments, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase helped confirm that DNA was the hereditary material. Which method did they use to discover this?Radio-labelling DNA and protein
Rosalind Franklin’s ___________ provided Watson and Crick with important data that helped determine the structure of DNA.x-ray crystallography
DNA is a ___________ shaped like a twisted ladder.double helix
DNA consists of ___________ running in opposite directions from each othertwo complementary strands
DNA is a polymer made of repeating units called ___________nucleotides
In DNA, each nucleotide consists of a ___________, a phosphate molecule, and a nitrogenous base5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose)
In DNA, Each nucleotide contains one of the four possible nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G)
Adenine (A) always bonds with ___________thymine (T)
Cytosine (C) always bonds with ___________,guanine (G)
The nucleotides of opposite chains are paired to one another by ___________,hydrogen bonds
The copying of a cell's DNA or making of an exact replica of DNADNA replication
DNA replication is ___________ meaning that each strand in the DNA double helix acts as a template for the synthesis of a new, complementary strand.semiconservative
Replication occurs during ___________ in the life cycle of a cell.interphase
___________ catalyzes the replication of the new DNADNA polymerase
___________ also proofreads each new DNA strand, fixing errors and minimizing the occurrence of mutationsDNA polymerase
DNA unzips at the ___________ that connect the two strands of the double helixhydrogen bonds
Each stand of DNA serves as a ___________ for the new strand according to the base pairing rules.template
If a strand of DNA to be copied is AAATCGGAC, then the new strand is ___________ TTTAGCCTG
Each time DNA replicates, some nucleotides from the ends of the chromosomes are lost; to protect against the possible loss of genes at the ends of the chromosomes. Eukaryotes have special nonsense nucleotide sequences at the ends of the chromosomes that repeat thousands of times; these protective ends of the chromosomes are called telomeres
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Section 2

Question Answer
___________ is a single-stranded helixRNA
RNA is a polymer of repeating units called ___________ nucleotides
In RNA, each nucleotide consists of a ___________, a phosphate molecule, and a nitrogenous base5-carbon sugar (ribose)
In RNA, Each nucleotide contains one of the four possible nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), Uracil (U), cytosine (C), and guanine (G)
There is no thymine in RNA. ___________ replaces thymine.Uracil
3 types of RNA: mRNA, tRNA, and rRNAmRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
Carries messages directly from DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm during protein synthesis. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
The triplet nucleotides of mRNA (such as AAC or UUU) are called codons
Shaped like a cloverleaf and carries amino acids to the mRNA at the ribosome in order to form a polypeptide.Transfer RNA (tRNA)
The triplet nucleotides of tRNA are complementary to the codons of mRNA and are called Anticodons
A major component of ribosomes, where it helps mRNA bind in the right spot so its sequence information can be read out. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Some rRNAs also act as enzymes, meaning that they help accelerate (catalyze) chemical reactions – in this case, the formation of bonds that link amino acids to form a protein. RNAs that act as enzymes are known as ___________. ribozymes
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Section 3

Question Answer
The process whereby DNA makes proteins Protein synthesis
3 main steps in protein synthesisTranscription, RNA processing, and Translation
The process by which DNA makes RNATranscription
Transcription is performed by enzymes called ___________ , which link nucleotides to form an RNA strand (using a DNA strand as a template).RNA polymerases
RNA polymerase builds an RNA strand in the ___________, adding each new nucleotide to the 3' end of the strand. 5' to 3' direction
Occurs after transcription but before the newly formed strand of RNA is shipped out of the nucleus to the ribosome. RNA processing
The pieces of RNA that are not chopped out during RNA processing are calledExons
The specific parts of RNA that are removed by a protein-and-RNA complex called the spliceosome.Introns
___________ can be viewed as "junk" sequences that must be cut out so the "good parts version" of the RNA molecule can be assembled.Introns
It's only the ___________ of a gene that encode a protein. Not only do the introns not carry information to build a protein, they actually have to be removed in order for the mRNA to encode a protein with the right sequence. exons
If the spliceosome fails to remove an ___________, a mRNA with extra "junk" in it will be made, and a wrong protein is will get produced during translation.intron
When an RNA transcript is first made in a eukaryotic cells, it is considered a pre-mRNA and must be processed into a messenger RNA (mRNA). It is calledRNA processing
In ___________, some sections of the RNA transcript (introns) are removed, and the remaining sections (exons) are stuck back together.splicing
In ___________, the DNA sequence of a gene is "rewritten" in the form of RNA. In eukaryotes, the RNA is processed to make the final product, called a messenger RNA or mRNA.transcription
In ___________, the mRNA is "decoded" to build a protein that contains a specific series of amino acids.translation
The process by which the mRNA sequence is converted into an amino acid sequencetranslation
Translation occurs at ribosomes
In an mRNA, the instructions for building a polypeptide are RNA nucleotides read in groups of three. These groups of three are called codons
There are ___________ codons for amino acids, and each of them is "read" to specify a certain amino acid out of the 20 commonly found in proteins.61
One codon, AUG, specifies the amino acid methionine and acts as a ___________ to signal the start of protein construction.start codon
Three codons UAA, UAG, and UGA do not specify amino acids and tell the cell when a polypeptide is complete are calledstop codons
Collection of codon-amino acid relationships is called the ___________, because it lets cells “decode” an mRNA into a chain of amino acids.genetic code
What is the anticodon corresponding to the codon GUA?CAU
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Section 4

Question Answer
A simple model for gene regulation can be found in bacteria in a region of DNA called theoperon
A cluster of functional genes plus the switches that turn them on and off. operon
2 types of operons1. Lac or inducible operon 2. Repressible operon
The operon which is always turned on unless it is actively turned off because it is not needed Repressible operon
The operon which is always turned off unless it is actively induced or triggered to turn on by something in the environment.Lac or inducible operon
Operons are common in ___________, but they are rare in eukaryotes such as humans.bacteria
2 most important parts of an operonpromoter & operator
Site where RNA polymerase bindspromoter
RNA polymerase must always bind to DNA before transcription can take place. So, promoter is like an ___________ switch. on
Operon that regulates the production of proteins involved in the metabolism of lactose.Lac operon
The ___________ of E. coli is a repressible operon responsible for producing enzymes involved in the synthesis of the amino acid tryptophan.trp operon
Binding site for the repressor, which turns of Lac operonoperator
The operon that helps RNA polymerase bind to the promoterTATA Box (named for its alternating sequnces, adenine & thymine)
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