Set 6 - Part 3 - Chapter 13 - Plants - Barron's

celine's version from 2018-03-12 12:14

Section 1

Question Answer
Plants can reproduce both __________ and __________.asexually and sexually
Process of creating new individual using one parent organismAsexual reproduction
In asexual reproduction, one parent organism produces offspring without __________ and __________ .meiosis and fertilization
Because the offspring of asexual reproduction inherit all their DNA from one parent, they are genetically__________ to each other and their parent.identical
Plants have two main types of asexual reproduction: vegetative reproduction or apomixis.
Asexual reproduction in which offspring grow from a part of a parent plant is calledVegetative reproduction or vegetative propagation
Examples of Vegetative reproduction / vegetative propagationRoots such as corms, stem tubers, rhizomes, and stolon undergo vegetative reproduction.
Some plants can produce seeds without fertilization. Either the ovule or part of the ovary, which is diploid in nature, gives rise to a new seed. This method of reproduction is known asapomixis
Advantages of asexual reproduction includean increased rate of maturity and a sturdier adult plant. (An advantage of asexual reproduction is that the resulting plant will reach maturity faster. Since the new plant is arising from an adult plant or plant parts, it will also be sturdier than a seedling)
Asexual reproduction can take place by __________ or __________ means.natural or artificial
In natural asexual reproductionroots can give rise to new plants, or plants can propagate using budding or cutting.
Artificial methods of asexual reproduction include grafting, cutting, layering, and micropropagation.
Process of attaching part of a stem from one plant onto the root of another plantGrafting
Grafting ProcessIn grafting, part of a plant is attached to the root system of another plant; the two unite to form a new plant containing the roots of one and the stem and leaf structure of the other. Grafting is widely used in viticulture (grape growing) and the citrus industry.
A method of plant propagation in which a bent stem is covered with soil in order to generate new rootslayering
Layering ProcessIn layering, part of the plant’s stem is bent down and covered with soil; this stem can generate a new root system and, therefore, an entirely new plant. Jasmine and bougainvillea (paper flower) can be propagated this way.
Placing part of a stem containing nodes or internodes in water or moist soil in order to produce new plantsCutting
Cutting ProcessPlants such as coleus and money plant are propagated through stem cuttings where a portion of the stem containing nodes and internodes is placed in moist soil and allowed to root. In some species, stems can start producing a root even when placed only in water.
Practice of rapidly multiplying plant material to produce a large number of progeny plants using plant tissue culture methodsmicropropagation/plant tissue culture
Micropropagation processTo start plant tissue culture, a part of the plant such as a stem, leaf, embryo, anther, or seed can be used. The plant material is thoroughly sterilized using a combination of chemical treatments standardized for that species. Under sterile conditions, the plant material is placed on a plant tissue culture medium that contains all the minerals, vitamins, and hormones required by the plant. The plant part often gives rise to an undifferentiated mass, known as a callus, from which, after a period of time, individual plantlets begin to grow. These can be separated; they are first grown under greenhouse conditions before they are moved to field conditions.
Advantages of micropropagation/plant tissue cultureThis method allows propagation of rare, endangered species that may be difficult to grow under natural conditions, are economically important, or are in demand as disease-free plants.

Section 2

Question Answer
Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms/Flowering Plants
The__________ is the reproductive organ in angiospermsflower
The basic function of a flower is to produce _________ through sexual reproduction.seeds
A typical flower has four main parts or whorls: the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium.
calyxThe outermost whorl of the flower has green, leafy structures known as sepals, which are collectively called the calyx
corollaThe second whorl is comprised of petals, usually brightly colored, collectively called the corolla.
androeciumThe third whorl contains the male reproductive structures and is known as the androecium. The androecium has stamens with anthers that contain the microsporangia.
gynoeciumThe innermost group of structures in the flower is the gynoecium, or the female reproductive component(s). The carpel is the individual unit of the gynoecium and has a stigma, style, and ovary.
The outer parts of the flower (often green and leaf-like) that enclose a developing bud. Sepal
Sepals are collectively called the Calyx
The parts of a flower that are often brightly colored, modified leaves found just inside the circle of sepals. They attract animals that will pollinate the plant.Petal
Petals are collectively called the Corolla
Together, the calyx and corolla are known as the Perianth
The _________ is made up of sepals, green leaf-like structures that enclose the unopened bud. They serve a protective role for the flower before it opens, and afterward extend from the base of the flower.Calyx
The _________ is made up of the petals of the flower, which are usually brightly colored in order to attract insects. Corolla
Together, the corolla and calyx make up the _________, the nonreproductive portion of the flower.Perianth
The nonreproductive portion of the flowerPerianth
The _________ is composed of the male reproductive organs, the stamens.Androecium
The set of a flower’s stamens (male reproductive organs)Androecium
Male reproductive organs of plantsStamens
The pollen producing part of a flower, usually with a slender filament supporting the anther. Stamen
The part of the stamen where pollen is produced. Anther
Each stamen consists of a long, slender filament topped by a pollen-producing _________.Anther
The anther contains numerous _________, which give rise to _________. These microspores develop, in turn, into _________, which carry sperm cells to the female reproductive organs.sporangia, microspores, pollen grains,
Male part of the flower, made up of anther & filaments..Stamen
Male part of the flower where sperm (pollen) are produced by meiosis.Anther
Threadlike structure that supports the antherFilament
The innermost group of structures in the flower is the _________, or the female reproductive component.gynoecium
The gynoecium, composed of a _________ or_________ or _________, as they are also sometimes called), lies in the very middle of the flower. The top of the pistil, where pollen grains land, is called the _________ and the shaft leading down into the ovary is called the _________. The ovary, containing ovules and egg cells, makes up the very bottom of the pistil.pistil or pistils or carpels,stigma, style
The _________ is the individual unit of the gynoecium and has a stigma, style, and ovary. A flower may have one or multiple carpels.pistil/carpel
Swollen part of pistil that contains the ovule, where one or more ova are produced by meiosis. Ovary
The structure within the ovary where the ova/female gametophyte are produced.Ovule
Long, usually thin stalk of the pistilStyle
Sticky top of the style where pollen lands and germinatesStigma
Name the four whorls of the angiosperm flower. What structures comprise each whorl?The calyx contains the sepals, the corolla contains the petals, the androecium contains the stamens, and the gynoecium contains the pistils (or carpels).
What is the function of the ovary? Where is it, and from what structure is it formed?The ovary encloses the ovules (which contain egg cells, and later become seeds). After fertilization occurs, the ovary develops into a fruit and protects the embryo contained inside. The ovary is composed of modified leaves called carpels and is found at the base of the pistil on the flower.
What is the location, function, and structure of the gynoecium?The gynoecium lies in the very middle of the flower and contains the female reproductive organs, the pistils. The top of each pistil (there may be one or more), where pollen grains land, is called the stigma and the shaft leading down into the ovary is called the style. The ovary, containing ovules and egg cells, makes up the very bottom of the pistil.
What is the nonreproductive portion of the flower called, and what is it comprised of?The nonreproductive portion of flower is called the perianth and is made up of the corolla (petals) and calyx (sepals).

Section 3

Question Answer
A typical flower has four main parts, or whorls: the calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium. If all four whorls are present, the flower is described as _________. If any of the four parts is missing, the flower is known as _________ . complete, incomplete
Angiosperms that contain both male and female gametophytes within the same flower are called _________ and are considered to be _________ or _________.complete, androgynous, or hermaphrodites.
Angiosperms that contain only male or only female gametophytes are considered to be _________ and are either staminate (contain only male structures) or carpellate (contain only female structures) flowers.incomplete
staminate flowers contain only an _________; and _________ flowers have only a gynoecium.androecium, gynoecium
If both male and female flowers are born on the same plant, the species is called monoecious (meaning “one home”). e.g., corn or peas,
If the male and female flowers are born on separate plants, the species are termed _________. dioecious, (meaning “two homes”) e.g., papaya

Section 4