Set 6 - Chapter 12 - Taxonomy - Part 1 - Barron's

celine's version from 2018-02-12 00:25

Section 1

Question Answer
A system by which we name and classify all organismsTaxonomy
What types of organisms does Taxonomy include?ALL ORGANISMS, LIVING OR EXTINCT
What is taxonomy based on?based on the system developed by Carl Linnaeus
What was the Linnaeus taxonomy called?binomial nomenclature (two-part name)
Human's two-part nameHomo sapiens
What is a taxa?levels of organization
What are the taxas?1. kingdom 2. phylum 3. class 4. order 5. family 6. genus 7. species
3 domain system based on DNA analysisBacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
The kingdom no longer in use Monera
2 domains Bacteria & Archaea include prokaryotes
Kingdoms classified in the domain EukaryaProtista, Fungi, Plants, and Animals
The two prokaryote domains, _____________ & _____________, split from each other early in the evolution of life.Bacteria and Archaea,
_____________ are very diverse, ranging from disease-causing pathogens to beneficial photosynthesizers and symbionts. _____________ are also diverse, but none are pathogenic and many live in extreme environments.Bacteria, Archaea
_____________ are single-celled organisms belonging to the domains Bacteria and Archaea.Prokaryotes
Prokaryotic cells are much_____________ than eukaryotic cells, have no _____________, and lack _____________.smaller, nucleus, organelles
All prokaryotic cells are encased by a _____________. Many also have a capsule or slime layer made of _____________.cell wall, polysaccharide
Prokaryotes often have appendages (protrusions) on their surface. _____________ and some _____________ are used for locomotion, _____________ help the cell stick to a surface, and _____________ are used for DNA exchange.Flagella, pili, fimbriae, sex pili
Most prokaryotic cells have a single circular chromosome. They may also have smaller pieces of circular DNA called _____________.plasmids
_____________is found in all prokaryotes?Ribosome
Where is genetic information stored in most prokaryotes?Singular chromosomes
A scientist is viewing an organism under a high-power microscope. He concludes that it is a prokaryote. What observation would support his claim?It has no nucleus.
How do prokaryotes reproduce?Binary fission
How can prokaryotes introduce variation in their populations?Conjugation

Section 2

Question Answer
All prokaryotic cells have a stiff _____________ . cell wall,
The cell wall of most bacteria contains _____________, a polymer of linked sugars and polypeptides. peptidoglycan
Peptidoglycan is unusual in that it contains not only L-amino acids, the type normally used to make proteins, but also ____________ ("mirror images" of the L-amino acids).D-amino acids
Archaeal cell walls don't contain peptidoglycan, but some include a similar molecule called _____________, while others are composed of proteins or other types of polymerspseudopeptidoglycan
The plasma membranes of archaea have some unique properties, different from those of both bacteria and eukaryotes. For instance, in some species, the opposing phospholipid tails are joined into a single tail, forming a _____________ instead of a _____________ (as shown below). This modification may stabilize the membrane at _____________, allowing the archaea live happily in boiling hot springs. monolayer, bilayer, high temperatures
Bacteria play a vital role in the ecosystem as_____________ that recycle dead organic matters.decomposers
Many bacteria are pathogens. True or False? True
Bacteria commonly used in genetic engineering?E. coli (Escherichia coli)
E. coli is from the human ____________ used to manufacture human ____________.intestine, insulin
Some bacteria carry out a primitive form of sexual reproduction called ____________ where individuals exchange genetic material.conjugation
Bacteria do not have ____________ but they are present in some genes in Archaea.introns
Domain Archaea includes ____________, organisms that live in extreme environments.extremophiles
Examples of extremophiles?Methanogens, Halophiles, Thermophiles
Obtain energy in a unique way by producing methane from hydrogen.Methanogens
Thrive in environments with high salt concentrations like Utah's Great Salt Lake.Halophiles
Thrive in very high temperatures, like in the Hot Springs in Yellowstone Park.Thermophiles

Section 3

Question Answer
4 Kingdoms classified in the domain EukaryaProtista, Fungi, Plants, and Animals
Kingdom Protista: Characteristics of Protists1. mostly unicellular, some are multicellular (algae) 2. can be heterotrophic or autotrophic 3. ALL are eukaryotic (have a nucleus) 4. A protist is any organism that is not a plant, animal or fungus
What does protista mean?Protista = the very first
Classification of Protists1. Animallike Protists – Protozoa – heterotrophs 2. Plantlike Protists – algae – autotrophs 3. Funguslike Protists – heterotrophs, decomposers, external digestion
Examples of Protozoans/heterotrophs/Animallike ProtistsAmoeba, Paramecium, Plasmodium
Examples of Plantlike Protists/algae/autotrophsGreen Algae, Red Algae, Brown Algae, Golden algae, Fire Algae
Examples of Funguslike ProtistsSlime Molds
____________ are a diverse kingdom, including all eukaryotic organisms that are neither animals, nor plants, nor fungi.Protists
Kingdom Fungi: Characteristics 1. Eukaryotic heterotrophs 2. Unicellular or Multicellular 3. are saprobes 4. Cell wall is composed of chitin. 5. Reproduce sexually or asexually
Organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter.Saprobes
Examples of Fungiyeast, mold, and mushrooms
Certain fungi combine with algae in a mutualistic, symbiotic relationship forming various ____________ which are photosynthetic. lichens
Pioneer organisms (the first to colonize a barren environment in an ecological succession)lichens
Kingdom Plantae: Characteristics 1. Multicellular 2. nonmotile 3. autotrophic eukaryotes 4. cell walls are made of cellulose 5. carry out photosynthesis 6. store their carbohydrates as starch 7. reproduce sexually
Examples of Plantaemoses, ferns, and cone-bearing and flowering plants
Kingdom Animalia: Characteristics 1. All are heterotrophic, multicellular eukaryotes. 2. Most are motile. 3. Most animals reproduce sexually with a dominant diploid (2n) stage.

Section 4

Question Answer
If the organism is unicellular, so it must be a ____________.prokaryote
If the organism has membrane infoldings for photosynthesis, it must be a ____________.eukaryote
If the organism has a cell wall, it must be a ____________.prokaryote
If the organism has a membrane-bound nucleus, it must be a ____________.eukaryote