Set 5 - Part 2 - Chapter 13 - Plants - Barron's

celine's version from 2018-03-09 00:46

Section 1

Question Answer
Plants consists of 3 main tissue types;1. Dermal tissue 2. Vascular tissue 3. Ground tissue
A 4th type of tissue, __________or growth tissue is found only in the growing tips of roots and shoots. meristem tissue
__________ covers the outer surface of herbaceous plants.Dermal tissue
The __________ is a dermal tissue that is usually a single layer of cells covering the younger parts of a plant. It secretes a waxy layer called the __________ that inhibits water loss.epidermis, cuticle
Dermal tissue is composed of __________ cells, closely packed cells that secrete a waxy cuticle that aids in the prevention of water loss.epidermal
Component Tissues of dermal tissue;1. Epidermis 2. Periderm (In older stems and roots, the epidermis may be replaced by the periderm, which provides protection while permitting gas exchange)
Functions of Dermal Tissue System1. protection 2. prevention of water loss
Epidermal cells do not contain _________ and cannot synthesize. An exception is _________, which are modified epidermal cells that contain chloroplasts and can photosythesize.chloroplasts
Epidermis possesses numerous minute openings called ________. Main function of stomata is exchange of gases between the internal tissues and the external atmosphere.stomata
Ground Tissues System:It includes all the tissues of the plant body except epidermal and vascular tissues.
Functions of Ground Tissues System:1. photosynthesis 2. food storage 3. regeneration 4. support 5. protection
Component Tissues of Ground Tissues System:1. Parenchyma tissue 2. Collenchyma tissue 3. Sclerenchyma tissue
Where is ground tissue located?surrounding the vascular tissue and internal to the epidermis
Functions of Parenchyma Tissue:Photosynthesis, Food storage, and Healing and tissue regeneration
Functions of Collenchyma Tissue:Support in young stems, roots, and petioles
Functions of Sclerenchyma Tissue:Rigid support and Protection
Potatoes contain food in the form of starch, which ground tissue are you eating when you eat mashed potatoes?parenchyma
The part of rhubarb that people eat is the petiole of a large leaf. Which tissue provides support for rhubarb?collenchyma
Which ground tissue is a major component of the blades of spinach leaves?parenchyma
Which ground tissue makes the shell of a nut hard?sclerenchyma
Functions of Vascular Tissues System:1. transport of water and minerals 2. transport of food
Component Tissues of Vascular Tissues System:Xylem tissue & Phloem tissue
Xylem Tissue1. Conduct water and dissolved minerals 2. Support
Phloem TissueConduct food and other organic substances
Cell Types Unique to Xylem TissueTracheids and Vessel elements
Cell Types Unique to Phloem TissueCompanion cells and Sieve-tube elements
Additional Cell Types in both xylem and phloem tissues:Parenchyma cells and Fibers
Which tissue is most likely to transport dissolved sugar?Parenchyma cells
What tissue transports water through dead cells?Collenchyma cells
Companion cells are unique to which tissue?Parenchyma cells
Vessel elements are unique to which tissue?Sclerenchyma
Xylem carries water and nutrients from the soil up to the tallest leaves against gravity with no expenditure of energy. Instead, they are pulled up by a combination of phenomena: Transpirational pull and cohesion tension
Mutual attraction between water molecules is called cohesion
The wall of the tracheids and vessels which transport water are made up of lignin and cellulose and have high affinity for water and this is called adhesion
Xylem vessels have perforated end walls and form a tubular structure from roots to the shoot tip. This provides a continuous channel for movement of water which cannot be pulled away from xylem wall due to __________ and __________ properties.cohesive and adhesive
The transpiration taking place through leaves causes negative pressure or tension in xylem sap which is transmitted to the root. This is called __________ which is responsible for the movement of water column upward.transpiration pull
__________ states that for each molecule of water that evaporates from a leaf by transpiration, another molecule of water is drawn in at the root to replace it. The transpirational pull-cohesion tension theory

Section 2

Question Answer
Which tissue in a plant transports water from the roots up to the leaves?Xylem transports water from the roots up to the leaves.
The loss of water from a leaf by evaporation is called ______.transpiration
The movement of water from the roots to the leaves is best explained by the ______ .cohesion-tension theory
The cohesion-tension theory helps to explainhow the xylem moves nutrients.
______ form a completely hollow pipeline from the roots to the leaves. Vessel elements
What causes water to fill the xylem pipeline completely, from the roots to the leaves, and to resist any separation?Cohesion of water molecules
The ability of water molecules to cling together is called ______ .cohesion
______ creates a negative pressure, tension or pull, that draws water up the vessel elements from the roots to the leaves. Transpiration
Transpiration will occur whenever water is present and the ______ are open. However, when stomates are open, carbon dioxide and water both exit the leaf. And when a plant is water stressed, the stomates close to conserve water and photosynthesis ceases when the stomates close. stomates
Stomates are more likely to be open during the ______and closed during the ______night, day
Which vascular tissue in a plant transports sugar?phloem
The movement of organic substances in phloem is translocation
Which type of phloem cell is used in translocation?sieve-tube cell
Which phloem cell has a nucleus that helps the other phloem cell to perform its translocation function?The companion cell

Section 3

Question Answer
A plant ______ is an organic molecule synthesized by a plant that has physiological and/or developmental effects at very low concentrations. hormone
Plant hormones:1. Auxins 2. Cytokinins 3. Gibberlins 4. Abscisic acid (ABA) 5. Ethylene
A plant hormone produced in the stem tip that promotes cell elongation.Auxin
Auxins stimulate stem elongation and growth by softening the ______.cell wall
The first plant hormone discovered was ______.Auxin
Auxins enhance ______, the preferential growth of a plant upward, toward the sun rather than laterally. Most plants have lateral buds located at nodes. Buds are embryonic meristems maintained in a dormant state. Auxin maintains this dormancy. As long as sufficient auxin is produced by the apical meristem, the lateral buds remain dormant. If the apex of the shoot is removed, the auxin is no longer produced. This will cause the lateral buds to break their dormancy and begin to grow. In effect, the plant becomes bushier. When a gardener trims a hedge, they are applying apical dominance.apical dominance
Unequal distribution of auxins causes ______. The reaction of plants to light in which the plants bend toward the light. Plant response to light by unequal growth caused by concentration of the plant hormone on the darker side of the plant shoot.phototropism
Naturally occurring auxinIndole Acetic Acid (IAA)
Human made auxin2,4-D. This is used as a weed kilier
Auxins are used as ______ to develop roots quickly in a plant cutting. rooting powder
A synthetic auxin sprayed on tomato plants will induce fruit production without pollination. This results in ______ tomatoes.seedless
Plant hormones that stimulate cytokinesis and cell divisionCytokinins
Cytokinins delay senescence (aging) by inhibiting ______. protein breakdown
Florists spray cut flowers with ______ to keep them fresh.cytokinins
Plant hormones that promote stem & leaf elongationGibberlins
The hormones that induce bolting, the rapid growth of a floral stalk. When a plant, such as broccoli, which normally grows close to the ground, enters the reproductive stage, it sends up a very tall shoot on which the flower and fruit develop. This is a mechanism to ensure pollination and speed dispersalGibberlins
The hormone that promotes seed dormancy by inhibiting cell growth. It is also involved in opening and closing of stomata as leaves wilt.Abscisic Acid (ABA)
Plant hormone that is a gasEthylene
______ is used to ripen crops at the same time. Sprayed on a field it will cause all fruits to ripen at the same time so they can be harvested.Ethylene
Plant hormone that affects stem elongationGibberellin promotes stem elongation
Which plant hormone is classified as an inhibitor and causes fruit to ripen?Ethylene
Treatment of sugarcane fields with ______ will increase the cane yield by more than five tons. This hormone, when sprayed at bloom and at fruit set, will cause Thompson seedless grapes to increase in size.gibberellin
Which plant hormones can cause the base of a shoot to form new roots and prevents fruit from dropping too soon.auxin
Plants bend toward the light so as to promote photosynthesis. This occurs because _____ is transported to the shady side of the shoot, causing the cells on this side to elongate.auxin
Abscisic acid and ethylene are growth inhibitors; the others are growth promoters. growth inhibitors

Section 4

Question Answer
A ______ is a growth in response to a stimulus. Plants grow towards sources of water and light, which they need to survive and grow.tropism
Forms of tropism includephototropism, geotropism, thigmotropism, positive tropism, and negative tropism
growth in response to the direction of lightphototropism
growth in response to the direction of gravitygeotropism
plant growth or motion in response to touchthigmotropism
positive tropism towards the stimulus
negative tropism away from the stimulus