Set 4 - Chapter 13 - Plants - Barron's

celine's version from 2018-03-11 21:21

Section 1

Question Answer
Plants include all multicelled, eukaryotic photosynthetic _____Autotrophs
Their cell walls are made of ______ & they store carbohydrates as ______. Cellulose, starch
Biologists believe that modern, multicelled plants evolved from the green algae _______. Chlorophyta
Plants can be classified as either _______ or _______Bryophytes, tracheophytes
Bryophytes are primitive plants that lack _______vascular tissue
Bryophytes must live in moist environments because they have _______ or ________ and must absorb water by roots or xylem, diffusion
Bryophytes are tiny because they lack the _______ necessary to support tall plants on land.Lignin-fortified tissue
Example of BryophytesMosses
Tracheophytes have transport vessels, _______and _______.Xylem, pholem
Tracheophytes include ancient seedless plants like_______, that reproduce by __________.Fern, spores
Tracheophytes also include modern plants that reproduce by _______.Seeds
Tracheophytes with seeds are further subdivided into_______ and _______.Gymnosperms, angiosperms
Gymnosperms are_______, the cone-bearing plants. They have various modifications to help them survive under dry conditions. These modifications include ______, a ________, and _______ in stomatal crypts to reduce water loss.Conifers, needle shaped leaves, thick & waxy cuticle, stomates
What are some examples of gymnosperms?Cedars, sequoias, redwoods, pines, yews & junipers
Angiosperms are flowering plants. They are also called _______. Angiosperms are the most diverse plants on earth and are the most plentiful plants on Earth.flowering plants, anthophyta
Some examples of angiosperms?Roses, daises, fruits, nuts, grains, and grasses
Angiosperms are further divided into_______ and ______.Monocotyledons (monocots) & dicotyledons (dicots)
A cotyledon is a ______.seed leaf
Some examples of monocotsGrasses: Wheat, corn, oats, lawn grass & rice and palm trees
Some examples of dicotsdaises, roses, carrots, and most flowering plants. Oak, Walnut, Cherry & most other trees are dicots.

Section 2

Question Answer
Mono-_ cotyledon(s)1
Mono-Vascular bundles in stem are _________scattered
Mono-Leaf venation is _________parallel
Mono-Floral parts are usually in _3s
Mono-___ rootsfibrous
Di-_ cotyledon(s)2
Di-Vascular bundles in stem are _________in a ring
Di-Leaf venation is _________netlike
Di-Floral parts are usually in _4s or 5s
Di-_________ rootstaproots

Section 3

Question Answer
Plants began life in the seas and moved to land as competition for resources increased. The biggest problems a plant on land faces are supporting the plant body and absorbing and conserving water. Several modifications enable plants to live on land.
Evolutionary developments that enabled plants to move to land;1. cell walls made of cellulose 2. Root and root hairs to absorb water and nutrients from soil. 3. Stomates for exchanging photosynthetic gases and to minimize excessive water loss. 4. The waxy coating on the leaves, cutin to prevent excess water loss. 5. In some plants, gametes and zygotes form within gametangia to prevent drying out. 6. Sporopollenin found in the walls of spores and pollen to protect plants from environmental damage. 7. Protective coating for seeds and pollen to prevent desiccation. 8. reduction of primitive gametophyte (n) generation.
What is gamatangia?:A gametangia is a protective jacket of cells that prevents gametes and zygotes from drying out.
What is sporopollenin?Sporopolenin is a tough polymer that is resistant to almost all kinds of environmental damage and protects plants in a harsh terrestrial environment, found in the walls of spores and pollen.

Section 4

Question Answer
How plants grow; Primary growth and Secondary growth
Unlike animals, plants continue to grow as long as they live because plants have __________ that continually divides, generating new cells. meristem tissue
Plants grow in 2 ways;1. Primary growth 2. Secondary growth
Plants undergo primary growth to ______ and secondary growth to ______.increase length, increase thickness
The increase in length of the shoot and the root is referred to as _______.primary growth
In vascular plants, such as angiosperms and gymnosperms, cell division takes place almost exclusively in specific tissues known asmeristems
Meristems, which are located at the tips of shoots and roots in all vascular plants Apical meristems,
The three zones of primary growth in plant cells;1. Zone of cell division 2. Zone of elongation 3. Zone of differentiation or specialization
Zone of cell divisionThe zone of cell division contains mertisem layers that are actively dividing and are responsible for producing new cells that grow down into the soil
Zone of elongationThe cells of the zone of elongation are responsible for pushing the root cap downward and deeper into the soil
Zone of differentiation or specializationThe cells in the zone of differentiation undergo specialization into 3 primary meristems that give rise to three tissue systems in the plant.
What are the three tissue systems 1. The Epidermis 2. The Ground Tissue 3. The Xylem and the Phloem
Secondary Growth meanslateral growth or an increase in girth. New cells are provided by the lateral meristem.
In herbaceous (nonwoody) plants, like vegetables and flowers, there is only __________ because these plants live for only one season. However, woody plants are protected by bark and live for many years. In these plants,__________ is responsible for the enlargement of the trunk. For each year of growth, another _______ is added. primary growth, secondary growth, ring

Section 5

Question Answer
The function of the roots is to:1. Absorb nutrients from the soil 2. Anchor the plant 3. Store food
Specialized tissues or structures of roots to carry out different functions1. Epidermis 2. Cortex 3. Stele 4. Endoderm
1. EpidermisThe epidermis covers the entire surface of the root and is modified for absorption. Root hairs from the epidermis greatly increase the root's absorptive surface area.
2. Cortex The function of the cortex is storage. The cortex consists of parenchyma cells that contain many plastids to store starch and other organic substances.
3. Stele or Vascular cylinderThe function of the stele is transport and it consists of vascular tissues, Xylem & Phloem surrounded by the pericycle from which lateral roots arise.
4. EndodermThe stele is surrounded by a tightly packed layer of cells called the endodermis. Each endoderm cell is wrapped with with the casparian strip (a waxy material that is impervious to water and dissolved minerals.
Absorption of nutrients and water:
Different ways plants use their roots to absorb nutrients and water:1. Symplast and the Apoplast 2. Mycorrhizae 3. Rhizobium
The movement of water and solutes across a plant is calledlateral movement
Lateral movement is accomplished along the ______ and _______.symplast, apoplast
SymplastSymplast is a continuous system of cytoplasm of cells interconnected by plasmodesmata.
ApoblastApoplast is the network of cell walls and intercellular spaces within a plant body that permits extensive extracellular movement of water within a plant.
MycorrhizaeIn mature plants of many species where older regions of roots lack root hairs, mycorrhizae supply the plant with water and minerals. Mycorrhizae are symbiotic structures. They consists of plant roots intermingled with hyphae of a fungus that greatly increase the quantity of nutrients that a plant can absorb.
RhizobiumRhizobium is a symbiotic bacterium. Rhizobium lives in the nodules on the roots of specific legumes. Rhizobium fixes nitrogen gas from the air into a form of nitrogen that the plant requires.
Types of roots1. Tap root 2. Fibrous root
Difference between Tap root and Fibrous rootTap root system has a main root that grows down, while fibrous root system consist of many small roots.
Dicots have a _______, while monocots have _______.tap root system (ex; dandelions), fibrous root system (ex; lawn grasses, wheat, rice, and corn)
Adventitious rootsSome roots, called adventitious roots, arise from an organ other than the root—usually a stem, sometimes a leaf. They are especially numerous on underground stems. The banyan tree is a great example of a species with adventitious roots, which have a large proportion of their roots above ground.
2 types of Adventitious roots;1. Aerial roots 2. Prop roots
Aerial roots An aerial root may be defined as a root which is exposed to the air. Example; English Ivy
Prop rootsProp roots are branched, looping roots arise from the trunk and lower branches. Example; Corn

Section 6

Question Answer
A stem connects the roots to the leaves, provides support, stores food, and holds the leaves, flowers, and buds.
The stem has 3 simple cell types: the _____, _____, and ______ cells that are responsible for metabolic functions, repairing and healing wounds, and storing starch.parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
Parenchymathe ground tissue making up most of the non-woody parts of a plant
Collenchymaa supporting ground tissue just under the surface of various leaf structures formed before vascular differentiation
Sclerenchymaa mechanical, supportive ground tissue in plants consisting of aggregates of cells having thick, often mineralized walls
The stem is composed of 3 tissue systems that include the _______, ________, and _______, all of which are made from the simple cell types.dermal, vascular, and ground tissues
Dermal tissueThe dermal tissue of the stem consists primarily of epidermis: Epidermis is a single layer of cells that makes up the dermal tissue covering the stem and protecting the underlying tissue. Woody plants have an extra layer of protection on top of the epidermis made of cork cells known as bark.
Vascular tissueThe vascular tissue of the stem consists of the complex tissues xylem and phloem which carry water and nutrients up and down the length of the stem and are arranged in distinct strands called vascular bundles.
Ground tissueGround tissue helps support the stem and is called pith when it is located towards the middle of the stem and called the cortex when it is between the vascular tissue and the epidermis.
The _______ and _______ that make up the vascular tissue of the stem are arranged in distinct strands called vascular bundles, which run up and down the length of the stem.xylem, phloem
A vascular tissue in land plants primarily responsible for the distribution of water and minerals taken up by the roots; also the primary component of woodxylem
A vascular tissue in land plants primarily responsible for the distribution of sugars and nutrients manufactured in the shootphloem
The xylem & phloem that make up the vascular tissue of the stem are arranged in distinct strands called _________, which run up and down the length of the stem.vascular bundles
Each vascular bundle contains phloem on the _______ and xylem on the _________, and _________ and _________ tissue in between the two.outside, inside, meristem
In monocots, the vascular bundles are _______throughout the stem. In dicots, they are arranged in a _________ around the edge of the stem.scattered, ring

Section 7

Question Answer
Most leaves have similar essential structures, but differ in venation patterns and leaf arrangement.
Each leaf typically has a leaf blade, stipules, a midrib, and a margin.
Each leaf typically has a leaf blade called the_______, which is also the widest part of the leaf. lamina
Some leaves are attached to the plant stem by a _______. petiole
Leaves that do not have a petiole and are directly attached to the plant stem are called ______. sessile leaves
Leaves also have _______, small green appendages usually found at the base of the petiole.stipules
Most leaves have a _______, which travels the length of the leaf and branches to each side to produce veins of vascular tissue.midrib
The edge of the leaf is called the _______margin
Within each leaf, the vascular tissue forms veins. The arrangement of veins in a leaf is called the _______. venation pattern
Monocots have _______venation in which the veins run in straight lines across the length of the leaf without converging. In dicots, however, the veins of the leaf have a net-like appearance, forming a pattern known as _______. parallel, reticulate venation
The arrangement of leaves on a stem is known as _______. The number and placement of a plant’s leaves will vary depending on the species, with each species exhibiting a characteristic leaf arrangement.phyllotaxy
Leaves may be categorized as _______ or ________, depending on how their blade (or lamina) is divided.simple, compound
In a simple leaf, the blade is completely _______; leaves may also be formed of lobes where the gaps between lobes do not reach to the main vein.undivided
In a compound leaf, the leaf blade is ______, forming leaflets that are attached to the middle vein, but have their own stalks.divided
The outermost layer of the leaf is the _______. It consists of the upper and lower epidermis, which are present on either side of the leaf. epidermis
The epidermis aids in the regulation of gas _______. gas exchange
Epidermis contains _______, which are openings through which the exchange of gases takes place. stomata
Two ________ surround each stoma, regulating its opening and closing. Guard cells are the only epidermal cells to contain chloroplasts.guard cells
A waxy layer known as the ______ covers the leaves of all plant species. The cuticle reduces the rate of water loss from the leaf surface. cuticle
Some leaves may have small hairs, ______ on the leaf surface. Trichomes help to avert herbivory by restricting insect movements or by storing toxic or bad-tasting compounds. They can also reduce the rate of transpiration by blocking air flow across the leaf surface.trichomes
Below the upper epidermis of dicot leaves are layers of cells known as the _______, or “middle leaf.” mesophyll
The ______ is found between the upper and lower epidermis; it aids in gas exchange and photosynthesis via chloroplasts.mesophyll
The mesophyll of most leaves contains two arrangements of parenchyma cells: palisade parenchyma & spongy parenchyma
The palisade parenchyma (palisade mesophyll) are ______ packed and the spongy parenchyma (spongy mesophyll) are _______ packedtightly, loosely
Function of palisade parenchyma (palisade mesophyll) Photosynthesis
Function of spongy parenchyma (spongy mesophyll)Photosynthesis & diffusion & exchange of gases into and out of these cells.
Similar to the stem, the leaf contains vascular bundles composed of _______ and ________.xylem, phloem
The ______ transports water and minerals to the leaves; the ______ transports the photosynthetic products to the other parts of the plant.xylem, phloem