Set 4 - Chapter 11 - Evolution - Barron

celine's version from 2018-02-08 16:36

Section 1

Question Answer
The change in genes of a population over time.Evolution
This refers to the changes in one gene pool of a population over generations.Microevolution
This refers to speciation, the formation of an entirely new species.Macroevolution
This consists of all the members of one species in one place and is the smallest group that can evolve.Population
Evidence of Evolution1. fossil record 2. comparative anatomy 3. comparative biochemistry 4. comparative embryology 5. molecular biology 6. biogeography
This reveals the existence of species that have become extinct or have evolved into other species.Fossil Record
Fossil Record showed that 99% of all organisms that have ever lived on Earth are now _____________extinct
Through studies of _____________ and _____________, we know that Earth is about 4.6 billion years oldradioactive dating and half-life
_____________ are the oldest fossils and were the first organisms to develop on EarthProkaryotic cells
_____________ have discovered many transitional fossils that link older fossils to modern species; _____________ links reptiles and birds while _____________ is the ancestor of the modern horse.Paleontologists, Archaeopteryx, Hyracotherium
Age of Earth4.6 billion years old
This technique compares organisms that have similar anatomical structures. It is characterized by the use of homologous structures (divergent evolution), analogous structures (convergent evolution), and vestigial structures.Comparative Anatomy
Structures that might not be similar in function but are similar in structure that show a divergent evolutionHomologous structures
Structures that are similar in function but not structure and whose common ancestor does not share this trait (convergent evolution). Show adaptation to similar environmentAnalogous structures
Structures that were once needed by ancestors but no longer after they evolvedVestigial structures
Organisms that have a common ancestor will have common biochemical pathways. The more closely related organisms are to each other, the more similar their biochemistry is.Comparative Biochemistry
Closely related organisms go through similar stages in their embryonic development because they evolved from a common ancestor.Comparative Embryology
Since all aerobic organisms contain cells that carry out respiration and require electron transport chains, they also all contain the necessary polypeptide, cytochrome c.Molecular Biology
The theory of continental drift states that about 250 million ears ago, the continents were locked together in a single supercontinent known as Pangaea, which slowly separated into seven continents over the course of the next 150 million years.Biogeography
This scientist was a contemporary of Darwin who developed the theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics and use and disuse. Lamarck stated that individual organisms change in response to their environment; this was proven incorrect.LaMarck
This scientist was a naturalist and author who, when he was 22 in 1831, left England aboard the HMS Beagle to visit the Galapagos. He published his theory of evolution known as natural selection.Darwin
Theory of Natural Selection1. Populations tend to grow exponentially, to overpopulate, and to exceed their resources. 2. Overpopulation results in competition and a struggle for existence. 3. In any population, there exists variation and an unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce. 4. Only the best fit individuals survive and get to pass on their traits to offspring. This is commonly known as survival of the fittest.
The ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its environmentDegree of fitness
Antibiotics kill off large amounts of bacteria but leave individuals who are immune. The appearance of antibiotics did not induce mutations for resistance, it merely killed susceptible bacteria.Drug Resistance
This type of selection eliminates the numbers of extremes and favors the more common intermediate forms.Stabilizing Selection
This type of selection increases the numbers of extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms.Disruptive Selection
This type of selection selects one phenotype over another and can be caused by changing environmental conditions.Directional Selection
Sources of variation in a population

Section 2

Question Answer
These are changes in genetic material and are the raw material for evolutionary change.Mutations, genetic drift, gene flow
These are changes in genetic material and are the raw material for evolutionary change.Mutations
Change in the gene pool due to chance (bottleneck effect, founder effect)Genetic drift
This is a type of genetic drift in which natural disasters kill off a large amount of the original population, leaving a smaller population that is not genetically representative of the original population.Bottleneck Effect
This is a type of genetic drift in which a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area.Founder Effect
This is the movement of alleles into or out of a population.Gene flow
Hardy-Weinburg Equilibrium1. Large population 2. No gene flow 3. No mutations 4. Random mating 5. No natural selection
Hardy-Weinburg Equationp + q = 1, p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1, p = dominant, q = recessive
Forms of isolation1. geographical isolation 2. polyploidy 3. habitat isolation 4. behavioral isolation 5. temporal isolation 6. reproductive isolation
A population whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring.Species
This is a form of speciation that occurs when species are separated.Geographic Isolation
A mutation that results from error in meiosis, causes isolation because they cannot breed with other organisms that are not polyploidPolyploidy
This is a form of speciation that occurs when species live in the same area but encounter each other rarely.Habitat Isolation
This is a form of speciation that occurs when two animals become isolated from each other because of some change in behavior by one member or group.Behavioral Isolation
This is a form of speciation in which two species become functionally separated into two populations via different mating seasons.Temporal Isolation
This is a form of species that occurs when two closely related species are unable to mate because of anatomical incompatibility.Reproductive Isolation
Patterns of evolution1. divergent evolution 2. convergent evolution 3. parallel evolution 4. coevolution 5. adaptive radiation
This occurs when a population becomes isolated from the rest of the species and becomes exposed to new selective pressures, causing it to evolve into a new species.Divergent Evolution
This occurs when two unrelated species occupy the same environment and are subjected to similar selective pressures and show similar adaptations.Convergent Evolution
This describes two related species that have made similar evolutionary adaptations after their divergence from a common ancestor.Parallel Evolution
This is the mutual evolutionary set of adaptations of two interacting species.Coevolution
This is the emergence of numerous species from a single common ancestor introduced into an environment. It is a form of divergent evolution.Adaptive Radiation
This is the theory that organisms descend from a common ancestor over a long period of time. It has been abandoned because scientists rarely find transitional forms or missing links.Gradualism
This theory was developed by Stephen J. Gould and Niles Elridge after they observed that Darwin's theory of gradualism was not supported by the fossil record. This theory proposes that new species appear suddenly after long periods of no change.Punctuated Equilibrium
This is the theory that living things emerge from nonliving or inanimate objects. This belief is disproven.Spontaneous Generation
These are the scientists who, in the 1920s, hypothesized separately that under the conditions of early Earth, organic molecules could form.A.I. Oparin and J.B.S. Haldane
These are the scientists who, in the 1950s, tested the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis and proved that almost any energy source would have converted inorganic molecules in the early atmosphere into a variety of organic molecules, including amino acids.Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
This states that the first cells on Earth were anaerobic heterotrophic prokaryotes. They simply absorbed organic molecules from the surrounding primordial soup to use as a nutrient source.Heterotroph Hypothesis
Land Animal Characteristics1. Lungs 2. Skin to keep the animals from drying out 3. Limbs to move about 4. Mechanisms for internal fertilization 5. Shell to protect their eggs and to keep them from drying out
Land Plant Characteristics1. Roots that anchor them into the soil and absorb water 2. Supporting cells to enable them to compete favorably for light 3. Vascular tissue to carry water upward 4. Waxy molecule (cutin) to protect the leaves from dehydrating 5. Seeds, a protective package for the embryo and its food
Important Concepts of Evolution1. Evolution is not always a slow process. 2. Evolution does not occur at the same rate in all organisms 3. Evolution does not always cause organisms to become more complex 4. Evolution occurs in populations, no individuals 5. Evolution is directed by changes in the environment