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Set 23 - Organ Systems - The Endocrine System

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celine's version from 2018-03-22 16:16

Section 1

Question Answer
Endocrine organs or glands secrete _________ into the bloodstream.hormones
A _________ is a substance that has specific effects on certain tissues types. Hormones function by binding to _________ on the plasma membranes of target cells. This binding changes the cell’s activity. Some hormones pass directly into the cell’s nucleus and affect gene transcription.hormone, receptor proteins
The endocrine system includes the following glands:Adrenal medulla, Pancreas, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Gonads (testes and ovaries), Hypothalamus, Pituitary
Adrenal medulla secretesEpinephrine and norepinephrine, responsible for the “fight or flight” response.
Pancreas secretesInsulin, which lowers blood glucose, and glucagon, which raises blood glucose.
Thyroid secretes Calcitonin, which lowers blood calcium, and thyroid hormones, which increase metabolism.
Parathyroid secreteParathyroid hormone, which increases blood calcium.
Gonads (testes and ovaries) secreteAndrogens, which promote male secondary sex characteristics; estrogens, which promote female secondary sex characteristics and growth of the uterine lining; and progesterone, which maintains the uterine lining in pregnancy.
Hypothalamus secretesRegulates the pituitary via gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and other hormones.
Pituitary secretesThe “master gland”; secretes a variety of hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); growth hormone (GH); antidiuretic hormone, which promotes water retention; and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, and oxytocin, all of which have roles in reproduction and pregnancy.
Pituitary hormones cause a follicle in the ovary to _________ and release an egg. The maturing follicle secretes _________ and _________ , causing the uterine lining to build up. After the egg is released, the follicle forms a _________ , which disintegrates if pregnancy does not occur. This loss of the corpus luteum causes estrogen and progesterone levels to drop, which in turn causes the uterine lining to be shed.mature, estrogen and progesterone, corpus luteum.
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Section 2

Question Answer
Calcium Regulation Feedback Loop
The body uses _________ to regulate internal conditions and maintain homeostasis. The level of calcium ions (Ca2+) in the blood is maintained within a very narrow range. When levels fall too low or rise too high, the endocrine system responds by secreting hormones that correct the imbalance. When calcium falls too low, the parathyroid glands release _________. This hormone acts on the kidneys and small intestine to increase their absorption of calcium. PTH also acts on bones, causing them to break down and release calcium into the bloodstream. When calcium levels rise too high, the thyroid is stimulated to release _________. This hormone causes the bones to take up calcium from the bloodstream, and the kidneys to decrease their calcium absorption.negative feedback loops, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin
_________ is secreted in response to low blood calcium levels. This hormone acts on the kidneys to take up more calcium and causes bones to release calcium into the blood.Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
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