Set 20 - Organ Systems - The Immune System

celine's version from 2018-03-22 13:56


Question Answer
Multicellular animal bodies are susceptible to invasion by _________ and _________. Viruses enter a cell and use its transcription and translation capabilities to make multiple copies of themselves; the viruses then burst from the cell to invade others.bacteria and viruses
The _________ protects the body by recognizing and destroying foreign cells and viruses.immune system
_________ is present at birth and protects against a wide range of microbes.Innate immunity
_________ develops after exposure to a pathogen, or agent of infection.Acquired (or adaptive) immunity
Acquired immunity is _________, while innate immunity is _________.specific, generic
The _________ and _________ provide an external first line of defense against a wide range of microbes. Pathogens that pass these defenses are destroyed by white blood cells called _________, which engulf and digest the invaders. _________ are phagocytes that display molecules from the ingested pathogen on their surfaces. Cells called _________ destroy body cells that are infected with bacteria or viruses. The complement system aids in immunity by producing blood proteins that either destroy pathogens or prevent them from reproducing. For example, virus-infected body cells secrete interferon proteins that induce other cells to prevent the production of and mucous membranes, phagocytes (“eater cells”), Macrophages, natural killer cells,
_________ also prevents infection. At sites of injury, mast cells release _________, which dilate capillaries and allow immune cells and proteins to flood the site. Inflammation also promotes _________, which forms a barrier to infection.Inflammation, histamines, clotting
_________ play a key role in acquired immunity by recognizing and responding to foreign molecules called _________. The surface of B and T lymphocytes (cells) have _________, Y-shaped proteins that can bind to foreign molecules. B cells becomes activated by recognizing and binding to an_________. Helper T cells may bind to an antigen displayed on the surface of a macrophage. Helper T cells stimulate B cells by releasing _________.Lymphocytes, antigens, antigen receptors, antigen, cytokines
B cells may also produce antibodies and, instead of displaying these proteins on the cell surface, release them into the bloodstream. In this case, the proteins are called _________. Once exposed to an antigen, some of these cells retain a “memory” that allows the body to mount an immediate immune response the next time it is encountered. This memory is the basis for _________, which provide immunity by exposing B and T cells to antigens.immunoglobins, vaccines
Which of these would a researcher test the blood for to determine if a person has been infected with a virus in the past? A. Antigens B. Antibodies C. Macrophages D. Pathogens E. Natural killer cellsB. Antibodies
Antibodies or immunoglobulins produced by B and T cells are specific and provide a “memory” that helps to fight previously encountered pathogens, or infectious organisms. Antigens, produced by pathogens, would not linger in the blood. Macrophages and natural killer cells are part of the innate immune system and would not be specific to a particular virus.