Set 2 - Plants - My Max Score

celine's version from 2018-02-27 01:11

Section 1

Question Answer
Plants, from tiny mosses to giant redwoods, are found on almost every continent on Earth. Plants evolved from a species of ____________ and have since adapted to terrestrial life. green algae
The evolution of plants occurred by a stepwise development of physical structures and reproductive mechanisms such as ____________, ____________, and ____________.vascular tissue, seed production, and flowering.
The first plants were semi-terrestrial, ____________, non-seed-producing species.non-vascular
Plants which appeared early in plant evolution and reproduce without seeds; they include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.non- vascular plants, or bryophytes
Seedless, nonvascular plants that are the closest extant relative of early terrestrial plantsbryophyte
Any plant possessing vascular tissue (xylem and phloem), including ferns, conifers, and flowering plantsvascular plant
Many plants developed a____________: to distribute water from the roots (via the xylem ) and sugars from the shoots (via the phloem ) throughout the entire plant.vascular system
A vascular tissue in land plants primarily responsible for the distribution of sugars and nutrients manufactured in the shootphloem
A vascular tissue in land plants primarily responsible for the distribution of water and minerals taken up by the roots; also the primary component of woodxylem
The plant tissue composed of totipotent cells that allows plant growthmeristem
An ____________ enables elongation of the shoots and roots, allowing a plant to access additional space and resources.apical meristem
A pore found in the leaf and stem epidermis used for gaseous exchangestoma
Because of the waxy cuticle covering leaves to prevent water loss, plants evolved ____________, or pores on the leaves, which open and close to regulate traffic of gases and water vapor.stomata
Land plants are classified by the presence or absence of____________and how they ____________ (with or without seeds).vascular tissue, reproduce
Major divisions of land plantsvascular and nonvascular
Non- vascular plants, or bryophytes reproduce without ___________seeds
Vascular plants are subdivided into two classes:seedless plants and seed plants.
Seed-producing plants include___________, which produce “naked” seeds, and ___________, which reproduce by flowering.gymnosperms, angiosperms
Nonvascular/Seedless/Bryophytesmosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
Vascular seedless plantslycophytes and pterophytes
lycophytesclub mosses (they are not mosses)
Lycophytes and pterophytes are both referred to as seedless vascular plants because they do not produce any ___________.seeds
Any plant that bears seeds rather than sporesspermatophyte
Any member of the subkingdom Embryophyta; most land plantsembryophyte
Seed producing plants/spermatophytesgymnosperms & angiosperms
Among vascular plants, gymnosperms and angiosperms produce ___________ instead of spores.seeds
Gymnosperms (“naked seed” plants) have seeds that are ___________. Gymnosperms include conifers such as pine, fir, and spruce trees, as well as cycads and gingko trees.partially exposed to the air
Angiosperms, or ___________, produce seeds that are completely encased in an integument. Angiosperms include deciduous trees, grasses, and all other flowering plants. flowering plants

Section 2

Question Answer
The life cycle of plants with a multicellular sporophyte, which is diploid, that alternates with a multicellular gametophyte, which is haploidalternation of generation
Alternation of generations describes a life cycle in which an organism has both ----------------- and ---------------------------------, although in different species the haploid or diploid stage can be dominant.haploid (1n) and diploid (2n) multicellular stages
Plants exhibit an alternation of generations between a ------------------------- and -----------------------.1n gametophyte and 2n sporophyte
Sporophytes (2n) undergo --------------- to produce spores that develop into -------------------- which undergo mitosis.meiosis, gametophytes (1n)
A plant (or the diploid phase in its life cycle) that produces spores by meiosis in order to produce gametophytessporophyte
The diploid stage of a plant (2n), the sporophyte, bears a --------------------, an organ that produces spores during meiosis.sporangium
------------------------- plants produce one type of spore which develops into a gametophyte (1n) with both male and female organs.Homosporous
-------------------- plants produce separate male and female gametophytes, which produce sperm and eggs, respectively.Heterosporous
a plant (or the haploid phase in its life cycle) that produces gametes by mitosis in order to produce a zygotegametophyte
an organ or cell in which gametes are produced that is found in many multicellular protists, algae, fungi, and the gametophytes of plantsgametangium
the fusion of two gametes to form a zygotesyngamy
In seedless plants, male gametangia (antheridium) release sperm, which can then swim to and fertilize an egg at the female gametangia (archegonia); this mode of reproduction is replaced by ------------------- in seed plants.pollen production
All plants alternate between -------------- and ---------------- generationshaploid and diploid
The diploid sporophyte form undergoes ---------------, giving rise to haploid spores. The spores divide mitotically to form a haploid plant body called a -------------------------------. The gametophyte produces ------------------------ via mitosis. Gametes join in fertilization to produce the --------------------, which divides mitotically to form the sporophyte generation.meiosis, gametophyte, gametes (sperm and egg cells), diploid zygote
Angiosperms are characterized by flowers, seeds, and fruits. ------------- is produced in the anthers of the stamens. --------------, the transfer of pollen to the stigma, may be carried out by insects, or the pollen may be dispersed by wind. A tube cell in the pollen grain forms a tube from the -----------, through the style, and into the -------------. Pollen also contains ---------- sperm cells. One sperm cell fertilizes the egg cell to form the ------------, which divides mitotically to form the ------------ contained in the seed. The other sperm cell combines with two nuclei in the ovule, forming a triploid cell. This gives rise to ---------------, the nutrient-rich, starchy tissue that provides food for the embryo within the seed.Pollen, Pollination, stigma, ovary, two, zygote, plant embryo, endosperm
Most flowering plants fall into one of two main groupings:monocotyledons and dicotyledons
Angiosperms: DivisionMonocots and Dicots
cotyledons meanseed leaves
Monocots have ----------------- inside the seed coat.only one seed leaf
Dicots have ----------------- inside the seed coattwo seed leaves
-------------- include palm trees, orchids, and grassesMonocots
------------ include many fruit- and vegetable-producing plants and trees that produce hardwoods (for example, oaks, maples, birches)Dicots

Section 3

Question Answer
The basic body plan of a plant consists of a root system & a shoot system
absorbs water and dissolved nutrients from the soilroot system
carries out photosynthesis and transports nutrients to the rootsshoot system
Vascular tissues distribute needed materials throughout the root and shoot systems.Vascular
Three types of tissues in plantsdermal, vascular, and ground.
This is the “skin” of the plant, and includes the root covering, epidermis, and leaf cuticle.Dermal
This includes xylem and phloem in the plant’s roots, stem, and leaves.Vascular
This includes all other tissues that regulate dermal and vascular tissue and carry out photosynthesis.Ground
Plant leaves play primary roles in ------------------ and -------------------------.photosynthesis and water regulation
components of a plant leafEpidermis, Mesophyll, Vein (vascular bundle)
These cells form the upper and lower surfaces of the leaf. They are covered in a protective cuticle and contain openings called stomata. The openings allow gas exchange between the air and the leaf cells and may be closed to prevent the loss of water from the leaf.Epidermis
This middle layer of the leaf carries out photosynthesis. The mesophyll cells in the upper palisade layer are elongated and tightly packed. The lower, spongy layer is more loosely arranged. Spongy mesophyll cells are key in gas exchange between the mesophyll and the air spaces in the leaf.Mesophyll
The leaf vein consists of xylem and phloem cells surrounded by bundled sheaf cells. Materials pass through this outer ring of cells, into and out of the mesophyll.Vein (vascular bundle)
---------------------- transport saps consisting of water, minerals, sugars, and other compounds throughout the plant body. Vascular tissues include xylem and phloem.Vascular tissues
----------------------- conducts water and minerals from a plant’s roots to its leaves. Xylem is composed of dead, elongated cells called tracheids and vessel elements.Xylem
The sugar-transporting ------------- consists of living cells. Sap moves along long, narrow sieve cells; in angiosperms, these are called sieve-tube members. These cells are regulated by companion cells that lie alongside them.phloem

Section 4

Question Answer
------------------ is essential to land plants, which must absorb it from the soil and transport it, to the highest leaves. Water
Two forces affect water transport:root pressure and transpiration
Transpiration is regulated by the opening and closing of ----------------.stomata
Root pressureWater and dissolved minerals from soil enter plants through the roots. A waxy layer within the root, the Casparian strip, prevents water from entering vascular tissue via the spaces between cells. Water must pass through the selective plasma membrane of root endodermis cells. Endodermis cells pump mineral ions (such as potassium, K+) into the vascular tissue. This increases the amount of water entering the vascular tissue by osmosis. This process creates root pressure, a “push” of water into the plant. Root pressure plays a much smaller role in water transport than transpiration
TranspirationWater in the leaf is lost to the environment as vapor that exits through the stomata. This water loss is called transpiration. Transpiration causes water from within cells to enter the spaces within the leaf. However, this water must be replaced by water in the xylem. Transpiration pulls water from the veins into plant leaves. Because of water’s high cohesion (stickiness between water molecules) and adhesion (stickiness to vascular tissue surfaces), the pull of transpiration acts down the length of the plant. It is primarily responsible for the upward flow of sap through the xylem.
Stomata These openings in the leaf epidermis control transpiration by regulating the loss of water from the leaves. The pore in each stoma is surrounded by two guard cells, which can expand to open when turgid or wilt to close. The guard cells pump potassium ions into their vacuoles. This causes water to enter via osmosis, increasing the pressure in the cell and causing turgor. The swollen guard cell opens, allowing gas exchange through the stomata. When water pressure is low, temperature is high, or it is night, potassium ions exit the guard cells, pulling water after them. The wilted guard cells block the stomata opening, preventing water loss from the plant.

Section 5

Question Answer
Plants have indeterminate growth thanks to tissues called ---------------, which consist of cells that can differentiate to form new shoots, roots, and leaves.meristems
Apical meristems are located on the tips of shoots and roots and are responsible for ---------------, which increases a plant’s length.primary growth
During primary growth, meristem cells are left behind at the bases of leaves, forming --------------. As the plant grows, the axillary buds may develop and form new leaves or branches.axillary buds
----------------- are located inside the trunks and roots of woody plants and are responsible for increases in thickness. Vascular cambium and cork cambium are both lateral meristems.Lateral meristems
Plant growth is regulated by ----------------, chemical signals that are produced in one plant tissue and cause a response in other tissues.hormones
Plant hormonesAuxin, Gibberellin, Abscisic acid, Ethylene, Cytokinin, & Brassinosteroid
--------------- stimulates the growth and differentiation of roots and shoots in fruit and causes tropic responses.Auxin
--------------- stimulates growth of stems and leaves and stimulates flower and fruit development.Gibberellin
--------------- inhibits growth and germination and causes stomata to close.Abscisic acid
------------- ripens fruit and may stimulate or inhibit plant growth.Ethylene
-------- regulates root growth and stimulates the germination of seedsCytokinin
----------- inhibits root growth as well as leaf abscission.Brassinosteroid
A ------------- is a response toward or away from a stimulus; ---------------- refers to a plant’s bending toward a light source.tropism, phototropism

Section 5

Question Answer
Which of these plant forms are diploid? I. Spore II. Sporophyte III. GametophyteSporophyte. The sporophyte produces haploid spores, which divide mitotically to produce the gametophyte. The gametophyte produces haploid gametes.
Which of these correctly matches the plant cells to their tissue systems? I. Guard cell II. Palisade mesophyll cell III. Sieve-tube memberGuard cells, which make up the stomata of the epidermis, are classified as dermal tissue. Palisade mesophyll cells, which carry out photosynthesis, are classified as ground tissue. Sieve-tube members, which make up the phloem, are classified as vascular tissue.
Which of these is/are responsible for an increase in the thickness of a plant? I. Apical meristem II. Vascular cambium III. Cork cambiumThe vascular cambium and the cork cambium are forms of lateral meristem, which increase the thickness (secondary growth) of woody plants.
Difference between monocots and dicots?Monocot vascular tissue is arranged randomly in the stem, while dicot vascular tissue is arranged in a ring.
Which of these increase the movement of sap within the xylem? I. Water moves into guard cells’ vacuoles. II. Humidity increases in surrounding air. III. Root endodermis prevents ions from entering xylemWater moving into guard cells increases turgor pressure, causing them to swell. Swollen guard cells open the stomatal pore, allowing water vapor to exit the leaf via transpiration. This, in turn, draws water up from the roots. In contrast, increasing humidity decreases water loss from the leaves. Root endodermis increases root pressure by pumping ions into the xylem.