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Set 2 - Chapter 9 - Cracking Evolution and Diversity - Princeton

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celine's version from 2018-02-05 02:04

Section 1

Question Answer
According to the heterotroph hypothesis, hydrogen [ □ was □ was not ] a chief component of the atmosphere when life began.was
At present, the gas of highest concentration in Earth’s atmosphere is [ □ helium □ oxygen □ nitrogen ]nitrogen
According to the heterotroph hypothesis, water [ □ was □ was not ] a chief component of the atmosphere when life began.was
The primary organisms on early Earth were ___________anaerobic
According to the heterotroph hypothesis, methane [ □ was □ was not ] a chief component of the atmosphere when life began.was
According to the heterotroph hypothesis, oxygen [ □ was □ was not ] a chief component of the atmosphere when life began.was not
The primary organisms on Earth today are ___________aerobic
According to the heterotroph hypothesis, ammonia [ □ was □ was not ] a chief component of the atmosphere when life began.was
The phrase “ ___________ ” refers to the fact that within any population of any species, genotypes vary (i.e., the gene pool features a wide variety of alleles).genetic variability
Genetic variability [ □ is □ is not ] caused by a species’ ability to adapt to existing environmental conditions.is not
Genetic variability [ □ is □ is not ] attributable to random mutation.is
Once a mutation has occurred, all members of the population [ □ will □ will not ] display the results of that mutation.will not
Genetic variability [ □ is □ is not ] a property of all populations.is
If a mutation were to occur in a somatic cell instead of a gamete (sperm or ovum), that mutation [ □ could □ could not ] cause genetic variability in the population. could not
Evolution [ □ always □ sometimes ] results in the production of a new species.sometimes
Speciation [ □ increases □ decreases ] biological diversity.increases
In the course of divergent evolution, two populations become [ □ more □ less ] similar to each other with regard to behaviors and traits.less
Evolution means a change in a population’s ___________. gene pool
If a population is geographically divided, it [ □ may □ cannot ] give rise to two separate species.may
Evolution that results in two species becoming more similar to each other in terms of behaviors and traits is called ___________ evolution.convergent
Divergent evolution can result from [ □ only physical □ only behavioral □ both physical and behavioral ] selection pressures from the environment.both physical and behavioral
Convergent evolution [ □ can □ cannot ] result in speciation.cannot
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
The science of classification is called ___________.taxonomy
The conventional ordering of phylogeny is domain, kingdom, ___________., ___________., ___________., ___________., ___________., ___________.phylum, class, order, family, genus, species .
The members of a kingdom [ □ do □ do not ] have more in common than do the members of an order.do not
The members of an order [ □ do □ do not ] have more in common than do the members of a class.do
Brown algae belong to which kingdom?Protista
Soft-bodied animals with hard external shells are classified as ___________.mollusks
With respect to the evolution of chordates, fish appeared [ □ before □ after ] birds, and birds appeared [ □ before □ after ] mammals.before, before
Animals with jointed appendages, hard exoskeletons, and segmented bodies are classified as ___________.arthropods
Prokaryotes [ □ do □ do not ] have a nucleus.do not
Mushrooms and yeast are ___________.heterotrophic
Amoebas and slime molds belong to which kingdom?Protista
Having flower parts in multiples of four or five is a characteristic of [ □ monocots □ dicots ] dicots
Protists [ □ do □ do not ] have a nucleus.do
Mosses and liverworts are examples of ___________.plants.nonvascular
Cyanobacteria [ □ can □ cannot ] photosynthesize.can
Earthworms and other segmented worms belong to phylum [ □ Annelida □ Arthropoda ]Annelida
The order in which chordates appeared on Earth is (1) fish, (2) ___________, (3) ___________, (4) ___________, (5) ___________, amphibia, reptiles, birds, mammals
Plants with parallel veins in their leaves and flower parts in multiples of three are classified as [ □ monocots □ dicots ]monocots
Conifers, such as pine trees, are classified as [ □ angiosperms □ gymnosperms ]gymnosperms
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
Fungi are classified as [ □ eukaryotes □ prokaryotes ].eukaryotes
Bacteria [ □ do □ do not ] have mitochondria.do not
Bacteria [ □ do □ do not ] have ribosomes.do,
Bacteria [ □ do □ do not ] have cell walls.do
Yeast are [ □ eukaryotes □ prokaryotes ] that reproduce by ___________.eukaryotes, budding
A viral ___________ is made of protein.capsid
[ □ transformation □ transduction ] occurs when a virus transfers some DNA from one bacterium to another.Transduction
Fungi [ □ can □ cannot ] photosynthesize.cannot
Bacteria that are perfectly happy in the presence OR absence of oxygen are called ___________.facultative anaerobes
Steps of the lytic cycle in the order they would occur; 1. ___________ attaches to host cell 2. Virus injects ___________ into host cell 3. Viral nucleic acids are ___________ using host cell machinery 4. New ___________ are formed 5. Host cell is ___________ and new viruses are released.viral capsid, nucleic acid, replicated, capsids, lysed
[ □ some □ all ] fungi are eukaryotes.all
A ___________ relationship exists between some plants and ___________ bacteria. These types of plants are called ___________.mutualistic, nitrogen-fixing, legumes
When a bacterium replicates its DNA and gives some of the DNA to another bacterium through a pilus, this is called___________.conjugation
Fungi have a cell wall made of ___________ .chitin
Bacteria are classified as ___________ and therefore ___________ have nuclei.prokaryotes, do not
An enzyme that makes a strand of RNA by reading a strand of DNA is called ___________.DNA-dependent RNA polymerase
Retroviruses go through the ___________ lifecycle.lysogenic
A ___________ cut of DNA by a restriction enzyme produces sticky ends.staggered
A piece of DNA cut with a restriction enzyme that produces sticky ends can be ligated to any piece of DNA cut with the ___________.same restriction enzyme
The enzyme that seals together cut pieces of DNA is called ___________.DNA ligase
A sequence of DNA that reads the same from both directions is called a ___________.palindrome
A piece of DNA cut with a restriction enzyme that produces blunt ends can be ligated into a plasmid cut with any other restriction enzyme. [ □ True □ False ]False
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