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Set 2 - Chapter 18 - Animal Behavior - Barron's

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celine's version from 2018-02-28 16:20

Section 1

Question Answer
The way an organism responds to changes in its internal or external environment.Behavior
A behavior can be ____________, such as running shelter upon hearing a loud noise. It can also be ____________, such as one child sharing her toys with another child.innate (inborn), learned
Usually behaviors are carried out in response to a __________, a change in the environmentstimulus
A monkey eats a banana (behavior) in response to hunger (___________)stimulus
An organism's behavior is important for its survival and for the successful production of __________offspring
The study of behavior and its relationship to its evolutionary origins is called __________ethology
Formost in the field of ethology are three scientists who shared the Nobel Prize in 1973: Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, and _________________Niko Tinbergenn
____________ is known for his extensive studies of honeybee communication and his famous description of the bee waggle danceVon Frisch
Niko Tinbergen is known for his elucidation of the _____________fixed action pattern
_______________ is famous for his work with imprintingKonrad Lorenz
This scientist is known for his extensive studies of honeybee communication and his famous description of the bee waggle dance.Karl von Frisch
This scientist is known for his elucidation of the fixed action pattern.Niko Tinbergen
This scientist is famous for his work with imprinting.Konrad Lorenz
______________ is an innate, highly stereotypical behavior that, one begun, is continue to completion no matter how useless or silly lookingFixed Action Pattern (FAP)
Fixed Action Patterns (FAP) are initiated by external stimuli called __________________sign stimuli
When sign stimuli are exchanged between members of the same species, they are known as __________________releasers
An examples of a ______________ studied by Tinbergen involves the stickleback fish, which attacks other males that invade its territory. The release for the attack is the red belly of the intruder. The stickleback will not attack an invading male stickleback lacking a red underbelly, but it will readily attack a nonfishlike wooden model as long as a splash of red is visible. Fixed Action Pattern (FAP)
____________ is a sophisticated process in which the responses of the organism are modified as a result of experience.Learning
The capacity to learn can be tied to length of life and _______________ of the braincomplexity
If the animal has a very _________ life span, like a fruit fly, it has no time to _____________, even if it has the ability. It must therefore rely on _______________.short, learn, fixed action patterns
If the animal lives and long time and has a complex brain, then a large part of tits behavior is dependent on prior _________ and _________. prior experience, learning
________________is one of simplest forms of learning in which an animal comes to ignore a persistent stimulus so it can go about its businessHabituation
If you tap the dish containing a hydra, it will quickly shrink and become immobile. If you keep tapping, after a while the hydra will bring to ignore the tapping, elongate, and continue moving about. It has become ______________ or used to the stimulushabituated
_______________ is a simple form of learning in which an animal stops responding to a stimulus after a period of repeated exposure; it is a form of non-associative learning, as the stimulus is not associated with any punishment or reward.Habituation
Prairie dogs typically sound an alarm call when threatened by a predator, but they become habituated to the sound of human footsteps when no harm is associated with this sound; therefore, they no longer respond to them with an alarm call. In this example, _______________ is specific to the sound of human footsteps, as the animals still respond to the sounds of potential predators.habituation
Innate behavior, or _________, is any behavior that occurs naturally in all animals of a given species.instinct
Honeybees doing the waggle dance or spiders spinning a web are examples of_________Innate behavior
Ability of an animal to perform a behavior the first time it is exposed to the proper stimulus.instinct
What is an advantage of an innate behavior?Young animals don’t have to take the time to learn an innate behavior.
What is an advantage of a learned behavior?Individuals can adapt to specific environments or stimuli with learned behaviors.
A male stickleback's display of aggression at a red object is an example ofinnate behavior.
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Section 2

Question Answer
___________________ is one type of learning in which one stimulus becomes linked to another through experienceAssociative learning
Examples of associative learning areclassical conditioning and operant conditioning
A form of learning in which an animal responds in a familiar way to a new stimulus.Classical Conditioning
Trial-and-error learning, in which an animal voluntarily repeats any behavior that brings success. Operant conditioning
The use of a neutral stimulus, originally paired with one that invokes a response, to generate a conditioned responseClassical conditioning
A technique of behavior modification through positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishmentOperant conditioning
The most cited example of classical conditioning is _________________ experiments with dogs. Ivan Pavlov’s
In Pavlov’s experiments, the unconditioned response was the ________________ in response to the unconditioned stimulus of seeing or smelling their food. During conditioning, every time the animal was given food, the bell was rung. This was repeated during several trials. After some time, the dog learned to associate the ringing of the bell with food and to respond by salivating. After the conditioning period was finished, the dog would respond by salivating when the bell was rung, even when the unconditioned stimulus (the food) was absent. Thus, the ringing of the bell became the conditioned stimulus and the salivation became the conditioned response.salivation of dogs
In the classic Pavlovian response, the dog becomes conditioned to associate the_________________ with food.ringing of the bell
An animal learns to associate one of its own behavior with a reward or punishment and then repeats or avoids that behavior through _________________operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning is also called ____________ learningtrial and error
he best known studies involving operant conditioning were donE by ______________ in the 1930s. B. F. Skinner
Skinner put rats in his boxes that contained a lever that would dispense food to the rat when depressed. While initially the rat would push the lever a few times by accident, it eventually associated pushing the lever with getting the food. This type of learning is an example of operant conditioning
Operant learning is the basis of most animal training: the conditioned behavior is continually modified by ___________________.positive or negative reinforcement
being given a reward or having a negative stimulus removedpositive reinforcement
being given a punishment or having a pleasing stimulus removednegative reinforcement
The training of dolphins by rewarding them with food is an example of ____________ operant conditioning.positive reinforcement
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Section 3

Question Answer
A type of learning that occurs at a particular age or a life stage that is rapid and independent of the species involved. Imprinting
The attachment of ducklings to their mother is an example of ____________imprinting
Classic imprinting experiments were carried out by ________________ with geese.Konrad Lorenz
Gesse hatchlings will follow the first thing they see that moves. Although the object is usually the mother goose, it can be a box tied to a string or in the case of the classic experiment, it was Konrad Lorenz himself. Lorenz was the first thing the hatchlings saw and they became imprinted on the scientist. Wherever he went, they followedClassic imprinting experiment
Any kind of interaction between two or more animals, usually of the same species.Social Behavior
Different type of social behaviorscooperation, agonistic behavior, dominance hierarchies, territoriality and altruism
This enables the individuals to carry out a behavior, such as hunting, which they can do as a group more successfully than they can do separately.Cooperation
________________ means working together with others. Members of the group may cooperate by sharing food. They may also cooperate by defending each other. Cooperation
A single ant would not be able to carry this large bee back to the nest to feed the other ants. With ________________, the job is easy.cooperation
Lions live in groups called prides. All the lions in the pride cooperate, though there is still serious competition among the males. Male lions work together to defend the other lions in the pride. Female lions work together to hunt. Then, they share the meat with other pride members.Cooperation
Meerkats are small mammals that live in Africa. They also live in groups and cooperate with one another. For example, young female meerkats act as babysitters. They take care of the baby meerkats while their parents are away looking for food.Cooperation
Working together with others.Cooperation
Define agonistic behavior.Agonistic behavior is any behavior related to fighting.
List two aggressive behaviors you've observed in dogs or cats.hackle/raise hair, bare teeth, hiss/growl/snarl, etc.
An aggressive behavior. It involves a variety of threats or actual combat to settle disputes between individuals. These disputes are commonly over access to food, mates, or shelter. It involves both real aggressive behavior as well as ritualistic or symbolic behavior.Agonistic behavior
Agonistic behavior in the form of attacks or threat displays is important in spacing the members of a species or establishing and defending a _______________. territory
_________________ behavior is aggressive behaviorAgonistic
Agonistic behavior involves a variety threats or actual combat to settle _________________ between individuals. These disputes are compounded over access to food, mates or shelter.disputes
Agonistic behavior involves both real _______________ behavior as well as ______________. One combatant does not have to kill each other. The use of symbolic behavior often prevent serious harm.aggressive, symbolic behavior
A dog shows aggression by baring its teeth and erecting its ears and hair. It stands upright to appear taller and looks directly at its opponent. If the aggressor succeeded in scaring the opponent, the opponent engages in a behavior that says, "You win, I give up." This is called submissive behavior
Examples of _____________ behaviors are looking down or away from the winner. Submissive dogs or wolves put their tail between their legs and run off.submissive
Once two individuals have settled a dispute and established their relationship by agonistic behavior, future encounters between them usually do not involve ______________combat or posturing
Pecking order behaviors that dictate the social position of an animal in a culture.Dominance hierarchies
Dominance hierarchies are commonly seen in hens where the __________ controls the behaviors of all theo there. The next in line, the beta animal, controls all others except the alpha animalalpha animal (top-ranked)
Each animal threatens all animals beneath it in the __________. The top-ranked animal is assured of ________ choice of any resource, including food after a kill, the best territory, or the most-fit mate.pecking order
A ___________________ is an area an organism defends and form which other members of the community are excludedterritory
Territories are established and defended by ____________________ . Territories are used for capturing food, _____________, and rearing young.agonistic behaviors, mating
A behavior that reduces an individual's reproductive fitness (the animal may die) while increasing the fitness of the group or family.Altruism
When a worker honey bees stings an intruder in defense of the hive, the worker bee usually dies. However, it increases the fitness of the queen bee that lays all the eggsAltruism
A form of altruism in which an individual sacrifices itself for the family, which share similar genes.Kin Selection
Altruism evolves through ________________. When an individual sacrifices itself for the family it is sacrificing itself for relatives (the kin), which share similar geneskin selection
The kin are selected as the recipients of the ________________. They are saved and can pass on their genes. altruistic behavior
Altruism evolved because it increases the number of copies of a _____________ common to a related groupgene
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