SET 2 - Chapter 14 - Cracking Ecology - Princeton

celine's version from 2018-02-21 20:42

Section 1

Question Answer
——————— is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environments.Ecology
The environment includes ——————— factors such as light, temperature, nutrients, and water, as well as ——————— factors such as other organisms that inhabit the environment. abiotic (nonliving), biotic (living)
A ——————— is a group of individuals in a particular area that interbreed and therefore share the same gene pool.population
Evolution does not act on an individual; individuals cannot evolve. But populations ——————— evolve, as their individuals undergo changes in phenotype and genotype.can
2 types of population growth?exponential growth and limited growth or logistic growth
——————— takes place when a population's per capita growth rate stays the same, regardless of population size, making the population grow faster and faster as it gets larger. Exponential growth
——————— takes place when a population's per capita growth rate decreases as population size approaches a maximum imposed by limited resources, the carrying capacityLogistic growth or limited growth
Exponential growth produces a ——————— & Logistic growth produces an ———————.J-shaped curve, S-shaped curve
The maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain is referred to as the ———————carrying capacity
A ———————a group of populations that live in a particular environment. community
An organism’s ——————— is the way it lives in its environment, including its nesting behavior, what type of food it eats, and when it hunts. niche
Populations occupy different ——————— within their environment. niches
If two populations have ——————— niches, they will compete for sole “ownership” of the niche. The more similar the niches, the more intense the competition. similar
The winning population retains the niche and the losing population must ——————— to survive.evolve
———————results in populations that occupy different niches, thereby reducing competition and promoting a more stable community.Evolution
When one organism eats another, we call that ———————. The organism doing the eating is the ———————, and the organism being eaten is the ———————. predation, predator, prey
The alternate evolution of two species based on their interactions with each other is called ———————coevolution
The way an organism lives within its environment is called a ———————.niche
Groups of different species living together and interacting with the same environment is called a ———————.community
Unrestricted population growth is called ———————. exponential growth
Members of the same community are also members of the same ———————. ecosystem
Alternate evolution of two interacting species is called ———————. coevolution
Individuals ——————— evolvecannot
Hawks and wolves hunting the same population of rabbits is an example of ——————— competition & predation

Section 2

Question Answer
———————, are organisms that can make their own food, and ——————— are those that must eat other organisms. Autotrophs, heterotrophs
The food chain starts with organisms called ———————. primary producers
The 2nd link in the food chain is made up of the ———————. primary consumers
The next link is made up of the secondary ———————.consumers
The top of the food chain consists of the ———————. tertiary consumers
One way or another, all organisms die. When they do, their dead bodies are broken down by other organisms called ———————. decomposers
In a food chain, only about 10 percent of the energy is transferred from one level to the next—this is called the ———————. The other 90 percent is used for things like respiration, digestion, running away from predators etc.10% rule
Herbivores eat the ———————. primary producers
Organisms that feed off dead and decaying material are called ———————. decomposers
Primary producers are ———————. autotrophs
There are more ——————— than primary consumers. primary producers
The least amounts of energy is available at the ——————— of the food chain. top
Organisms that eat both plants and animals are called ——————— omnivores
Decomposers include both ——————— & ———————bacteria and fungi
An herbivore is a ———————heterotroph
In a food chain consisting of grass, grasshoppers, frogs, and bass, grasshoppers are ——————— numerous than frogs, and frogs are ——————— numerous than bass.more, more,
Lichen are the pioneers, and they are referred to as ——————— because they’re the first to start living in a previously uninhabited organisms
——————— is a series of progressive changes in the species that make up a community over time.Ecological succession
End result of succession is a stable, unchanging final state called a ———————, largely determined by an area's climate. climax community
When a plant community begins on a barren rock, the first organism to colonize the rock is most often ———————lichen
In an ecological succession, each new plant community in an area ——————— the previous plant community. coexists with
The final community in ecological succession is called the ______________ communityclimax
Gradual, unpredictable change in plants that occurs over millions of years is called ———————evolution
The ______________ organism is the one that first appears as the founder of a biological community. pioneer
The final plant community in ecological succession is made up primarily of ———————deciduous trees

Section 3

Question Answer
Most carbon is found ______________as carbon dioxide
Water and chemical nutrients are classified as ______________ elements of an ecosystem. abiotic
Water moves from plants to clouds by ______________transpiration
Nitrogen is converted into usable forms in the soil by ______________bacteria
Carbon is returned to the atmosphere by ______________ and removed from the atmosphere by ______________respiration, photosynthesis
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in root nodules of ______________legumes
An ______________ consists of a community of organisms together with their physical environment.ecosystem
Most water is taken up into clouds by ______________ and ______________. The water returns to the oceans, land, and lakes by rainfall or other types of ______________. Water that enters the soil returns to the oceans through ______________. evaporation, transpiration, precipitation, runoff
Most carbon is found as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Carbon is also used by plants to form organic molecules (sugars), which are then eaten by animals. The carbon is recycled to the atmosphere by ______________ respiration
When animals and plants die, the nitrogen in their bodies is released into the soil and is converted by ______________ into a usable form for plants. bacteria
Three cycles which move nutrients throughout ecosystems. water cycle, nitrogen cycle, and carbon cycle

Section 4

Question Answer
______________ are large areas classified mostly by the ecosystemsBiomes
All the biomes together make up the ______________the largest level of organization and, essentially, the planet Earth.biosphere
Terrestrial BiomesTundra, Taiga, Deciduous Forests, Grasslands, Tropical Rain Forests, Desert
Aquatic Biomes The Intertidal Zone (Marine), The Neritic Zone (Marine), The Oceanic Zone (Marine), The Littoral Zone (Freshwater), The Limnetic Zone (Freshwater), The Profundal Zone (Freshwater)
An area characterized by permafrost, permanently frozen topsoil. It’s found in the northernmost parts of North America, Europe, and Asia. Tundra
Found a little bit south of the tundra & contains many, many conifers (evergreen trees). Taiga/coniferous forest
South of the taiga where there’s a lot of rain and a wide variety of plants and animals. The climate has distinct hot and cold seasons.Deciduous Forests
Characterized by low-growing plants and a few scattered trees. Tree growth is limited by regular periods of drought, grazing, and occasional fires.Grasslands (Savanna)
Have the highest rainfall of any of the biomes and the greatest diversity in flora and fauna. Tropical Rain Forests
The driest of all the biomes; they receive fewer than 30 centimeters of rainfall per year. Desert
The biome where land and water meet.The Intertidal Zone (Marine)
The biome which extends from the intertidal zone, at the shore, to the edge of the continental shelf. The Neritic Zone (Marine)
Open ocean where there is very little nutrient concentration except for phytoplankton. The Oceanic Zone (Marine)
The biome which is found near the shore of a lake. The Littoral Zone (Freshwater)
The zone which is farther from the shore and extends downward as far as light will penetrate.The Limnetic Zone (Freshwater)
The aphotic region of the lake. The Profundal Zone (Freshwater)
The ______________ extends from the surface of the water to the depth to which light will penetrate. Obviously, photosynthetic organisms can thrive in this zone. Below the photic zone is the ______________, where there is no light at all. Nutrients from the photic zone sink into this area.photic zone, aphotic zone
The Oceanic Zone (Marine) can be further divided into ______________ and ______________ zones. Also, the deepest parts of the ocean are known as ______________ zones.pelagic (open water, benthic (ocean bottom), abyssal
The potential consequences of human impact on the environment:Greenhouse effect, Ozone depletion, Acid rain, Desertification, Deforestation, Pollution, and Reduction in biodiversity
The tropical rain forest has ______________biological diversity than the tundra. greater
The biome characterized by large numbers of evergreen conifers is the _________________. taiga
The primary plant forms of the ______________ are mosses, lichen, and wildflowers. tundra
The ocean floor is known as the _______ zone.benthic
Animals with adaptations for a dry environment would live in the ______________desert
The deepest zone of the ocean is the ______________abyssal zone
Permanently frozen soil is a characteristic of ___________________.tundra
The biome with very fertile soil and many herbivores is the __________________________. grassland
Deer, bears, and raccoon are found in the ______________, where as caribou and moose are found in the ______________. deciduous forest, deciduous forest
Deciduous trees ______________ lose their leaves during cold seasons. do
Phytoplankton would thrive well in the ______________limnetic zone
Succulent plants are well suited to ______________desert
Areas of water where light does not penetrate are known as __________________________ zones. aphotic
The most northern biome is the ______________tundra
The tundra ______________ grow many trees. does not
Coral reefs can typically be found in the ______________ neritic zone