Set 2 - Chapter 10 - Organ Systems - Princeton

celine's version from 2018-02-05 15:57

Section 1

Question Answer
The human body is made up of ___________ different organ systems, each of which is specialized to carry out particular functions.eleven
Two systems, the ___________ and the ___________, control all the other organ systems, such as the circulatory system, the respiratory system, and the digestive system. nervous system, endocrine system
The ___________ detects and interprets information from the surrounding environment. It essentially controls most body functions.nervous system
The ___________ controls body functions through the use of chemical messengers called hormones.endocrine system
The ___________ transports needed materials to the cells and carries away waste materials.circulatory system
The ___________ recaptures and filters fluid from the tissues and returns it to the blood stream.lymphatic system
The ___________ takes oxygen into the body and releases carbon dioxide.respiratory system
The ___________ takes food into the body, breaks it down, and absorbs the nutrients from the food.digestive system
The ___________ removes metabolic wastes from the blood.urinary system
The ___________ supports the body, protects it, and allows movement (along with the muscular system).skeletal system
The ___________ makes it possible for the body to move.muscular system
The ___________ protects the body and helps regulate body
The ___________ produces the cells necessary to produce offspring.reproductive system

Section 2

Question Answer
The _________________ is a membrane protein that pumps three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell.NA+/K+ ATPase
Sodium ions [ □ can □ cannot ] cross back into the cell after being pumped out.cannot
Dendrites [ □ receive □ transmit ] an electrical impulse.receive
The direction in which an impulse travels through a neuron is ________________ to __________________ to _________________.dendrites, cell body, axon
Potassium concentration is [ □ higher □ lower ] inside the cell than outside.higher
The resting membrane potential of the cell is ________________.–70 mV
Sodium concentration is [ □ higher □ lower ] inside the cell than outside.lower
The axon of a neuron carries the nerve impulse [ □ toward □ away from ] the cell body.away from
Depolarization results from an [ □ influx □ efflux ] of [ □ sodium □ potassium ] ions.influx, sodium
Rapid, “jumping” conduction is called ________________.saltatory conduction
Threshold potential is ________________.–50 mV
A return to the resting, polarized state is called _____________.repolarization
The small portion of a neuron’s membrane that is undergoing an action potential is relatively _____________ on the inside and _____________ on the outside.positive, negative
The time during which a portion of the membrane is unable to fire an action potential (because of the fact that it has just fired one) is called the ____________________.refractory period
In a myelinated axon, action potentials occur only at the _____________.nodes of Ranvier
Repolarization results from an_____________ of _____________ ions.efflux, potassium
Ion channels that open at a particular membrane potential are said to be ___________________.voltage-gated
A neuron whose resting potential is moving away from threshold is said to be _____________. inhibited
The small space between the axon terminus of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron is called the ______________.synaptic cleft
A synapse can be found between a _____________ .neuron & an organ, neuron & a neuron
The most common neurotransmitter in the body is ______________.acetylcholine
A neurotransmitter is released from _____________ and binds to _____________.vesicles, receptors
Receptors that open sodium channels would cause the neuron to _________________.depolarize
A neuron will fire an action potential only if its membrane potential reaches ______________________.threshold
The CNS consists of the __________ and the _______________.brain, spinal cord
Motor neurons are part of the _______________.PNS
Interneurons are part of the _______________. CNS
The ________________ maintains body homeostasis.hypothalamus
Conscious awareness of ourselves and our surroundings is controlled by the ________________ of the brain. cerebrum
The ________________ division of the PNS controls the skeletal muscles.somatic
The primary neurotransmitter used by the parasympathetic division of the ANS is ________________.acetylcholine
The ________________ division of the PNS is in control of a person watching TV.parasympathetic
Which part of the brain smoothes and coordinates body movement?Cerebellum
Neurons of the PNS are ________________ neurons of the CNS.connected to
Conscious thought processes are carried out by the _________________.cerebrum

Section 3

Question Answer
Peptide hormones have receptors ________________ the cell, and steroids have receptors ________________ the cell. outside, inside
The organs that are affected by a particular hormone are referred to as that hormone’s organs
The endocrine system is ________________ than the nervous system.slower
Peptide hormones cause their effects ________________ rapidly than steroid hormones.more
Steroid hormones cause their effects by________________.modifying transcription
Steroid hormones are derived from________________cholesterol
The pancreatic islet cells secrete _______ and _______.glucagon, insulin
The ovaries secrete _______ and ______.estrogen, progesterone
The anterior pituitary secretes _______, _______, _______, _______, _______, and _______.ACTH, prolactin, LH, growth hormone, FSH, TSH
The thyroid gland secretes ______ and ______.thyroxine, calcitonin
The adrenal cortex secretes _______ and _______.aldosterone, cortisol
The posterior pituitary secretes _______ and _______.oxytocin, ADH
The adrenal medulla secretes _______ and _______.epinephrine, norepinephrine
The testes secrete _______.testosterone
The parathyroid gland secretes _______.parathormone
Estrogen / progesterone _______(target organ)uterus
ACTH _______(target organ)adrenal cortex
aldosterone _______(target organ)kidneys
epinephrine / norepinephrine _______(target organ)all cells in the body
prolactin _______(target organ)mammary glands
glucagon _______(target organ)liver
parathormone _______(target organ)bones
LH / FSH _______(target organ)ovaries and testes
insulin______(target organ)all cells in the body
oxytocin______(target organ)uterus
growth hormone______(target organ)all cells in the body
testosterone______(target organ)male body
cortisol______(target organ)all cells in the body
ADH______(target organ)kidneys
TSH______(target organ)thyroid gland
thyroxine______(target organ)all cells in the body
calcitonin______(target organ)bones

Section 4

Question Answer
estrogen_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)maintains female sex characteristics, builds uterine lining
ACTH_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)causes release of hormones from adrenal cortex
aldosterone_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)causes kidneys to retain sodium
epinephrine / norepinephrine_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)prolongs and enhances “fight or flight” response
prolactin_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)production of breast milk
glucagon_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)breakdown of glycogen, increases blood glucose levels
parathormone_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)breaks down bone, increases blood calcium
LH_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)releases testosterone in male, forms corpus luteum in female
insulin_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)allows cells to take up glucose, decreases blood glucose levels
oxytocin_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)contract uterus, releases breast milk
growth hormone_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)growth of the body
testosterone_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)maintains male sex characteristics
cortisol _______ (the appropriate effect in the body)causes gluconeogenesis, increases blood glucose levels
ADH_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)causes kidneys to retain water
TSH_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)causes thyroid gland to release thyroxine
thyroxine_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)increases body metabolism
FSH_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)causes spermatogenesis in male, oogenesis in female
progesterone_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)maintains and enhances uterine lining
calcitonin_______ (the appropriate effect in the body)builds bone, decreases blood calcium