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Set 16 - Organ Systems - The Digestive System - My Max Score

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celine's version from 2018-03-16 21:20

Section 1

Question Answer
Digestion occurs in the tube-like _________.digestive tract
Once food is digested, nutrients are absorbed into the body and transported through the _________.bloodstream
Food may be digested mechanically or chemically by _________.enzymes
The mouth, teeth, and tongue _________ digest food, breaking it down into a soft mixture.mechanically
Chemical digestion begins in the mouth, as salivary _________ begins to break down carbohydrates.amylase
Food is swallowed, passing over the _________ that closes off the trachea and then into the _________.epiglottis, esophagus
_________ contractions of the esophagus push food to the stomach.Peristaltic
The stomach lining secretes highly acidic gastric juice, with a pH between _________. This breaks down food chemically, and the enzyme pepsin begins to cleave proteins into smaller polypeptides.1 and 3, pepsin,
The stomach stores and churns food for several hours, producing a mixture called _________.chyme
The chyme is then released into the _________ (upper portion) of the small intestine. Here, it mixes with secretions from the duodenum, liver, and pancreas and is further digested.duodenum
Accessory OrgansPancreas, Liver, and Gall Bladder
Pancreas, Liver, and Gall Bladder are _________ in digestion; food does not pass through them, but they release substances into the digestive tract.accessory organs
The liver produces _________, which helps to _________ fats and raises the _________ of the chyme. The emulsification of fats increases their _________, allowing them to be digested by _________ from the pancreas.bile, emulsify, pH, surface area, lipase
The pancreas secretes _________ that digest carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acidsenzymes
The gallbladder stores _________ produced by the liver and releases it into the _________ when needed. This allows a larger volume of bile to be released at one time.bile, duodenum
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Section 2

Question Answer
After food is digested, it is absorbed in the remaining length of the _________.small intestine
Tiny fingerlike projections, called _________, line the inner wall of small intestine. The cells of the villi have projections called _________. Together, the villi and microvilli maximize the_________ available for absorption.villi, microvilli, surface area
Dissolved nutrients enter the cells of the villi and pass into tiny capillaries, where they enter the _________ to be distributed throughout the body.bloodstream
Undigested material passes into the _________, which houses a rich bacterial floralarge intestine (colon)
The symbiotic bacteria in large intestine use the nutrients in unabsorbed or undigested food and in return produce several essential vitamins, such as _________.vitamin K
The remaining undigested matter, along with some bacteria, make up _________. Feces are stored in the _________ until they can be eliminated.feces, rectum
The large intestine is crucial in _________, absorbing much of the water released into the digestive tract up to this point. Too little water reabsorption leads to _________; too much reabsorption results in _________.water regulation, diarrhea, constipation
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Section 3

Question Answer
Glucose Regulation Feedback Loop
The level of glucose in the blood is regulated so that it remains within a tight range. The ingestion of a large meal leads to the absorption of glucose, raising _________ levels.blood glucose
The pancreas responds by secreting the hormone _________, which stimulates the cells of the liver, brain, muscles, and other body tissues to take up more glucose. This depletes the glucose in the blood.insulin
The liver converts glucose molecules to a polymer called _________, a storage form of glucose.glycogen
When blood glucose drops too low, the pancreas secretes _________. This hormone causes the liver to convert stored glycogen to glucose and release it into the bloodstream, raising the glucose level.glucagon,
The regulation of blood glucose is an example of a _________.negative feedback loop
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Section 4

Question Answer
Which of these does NOT secrete any digestive enzyme? A. Salivary glands B. Liver C. Pancreas D. Small intestine E. StomachB. The liver secretes lipase, which emulsifies fats and allows them to be digested by pancreatic lipase. However, the liver does not produce digestive enzymes.
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