Set 13 - Ecology Part 2- Chapter 19 - Barron's

celine's version from 2018-03-08 22:14

Section 1

Question Answer
Large regions of Earth whose distribution depends on the amount of rainfall and the temperature in an area.Biomes
Consists of all the habitats of a community that make up similar ecosystems in a particular region.Biome
The __________, including precipitation and temperature, and the __________ control the type of biome found in a region.climate, geography
Any major regional biological community such as that of forest or desertBiome
The Earth’s biomes are categorized into two major groups:terrestrial and aquatic
Terrestrial biomes are based on __________, while aquatic biomes include both __________, ocean and freshwater
Biomes have no distinct boundaries. Instead, there is a transition zone called an __________, which contains a variety of plants and animals. For example, an ecotone might be a transition region between a grassland and a desert, with species from both.ecotone,
Aquatic biomesMarine & Freshwater biomes
In aquatic biomes, __________is an important factor that influences the communities of organisms found in both freshwater and marine ecosystems.light
In freshwater biomes, __________, a major abiotic factor, is related to the energy aspects of light.stratification
The process leading to the formation or deposition of layersstratification

Section 2

Question Answer
The aquatic biome can be broken down into two basic regions, __________ (i.e, ponds and rivers) and __________ (i.e, oceans and estuaries).freshwater, marine
3 different types of freshwater regions:1. ponds and lakes 2. streams and rivers 3. wetlands.
Lakes and ponds are divided into three different “zones” which are usually determined by depth and distance from the shoreline.1. littoral zone 2. limnetic zone 3. profundal zone
The topmost zone near the shore of a lake or pondlittoral zone
The near-surface open water surrounded by the littoral zonelimnetic zone
Deep-water part of the lake/pondprofundal zone
Bodies of flowing water moving in one directionstreams and rivers
Areas of standing water that support aquatic plants.Wetlands
Examples of WetlandsMarshes, swamps, and bogs
Plant species adapted to the very moist and humid conditions are called hydrophytes
Hydrophytes includepond lilies, cattails, sedges, tamarack, and black spruce
__________ have the highest species diversity of all ecosystems. Many species of amphibians, reptiles, birds (such as ducks and waders), and furbearers can be found in the wetlands.Wetlands
Marine biomes cover about three-fourths of the Earth’s surface and include __________, __________, and __________.oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries.
The largest biome, covering three-fourths of Earth's surface.Marine
The most stable biome, with temperatures that vary little because water has the ability to absorb lots of heat and there is such an enormous volume of water.Marine
The largest marine biomeocean
There are three _______ and three ______ zones of the ocean.vertical, horizontal
The three vertical zones arethe photic zone, the aphotic zone and the benthic zone
The __________ is where light penetrates. This accounts for less than 100 meters from the surface. The only producers are photoplankton.photic zone
The __________ is where there is cold, deep dark water. There is an absence of sunlight and very high pressures that limits organisms that can live there. Plants do not grow in this zone because of the absence of sunlight. In addition to that, there is no ocean floor for the plants to root into. Organisms that live here eat detritus. This is tiny pieces of dead organic material that drift down from the surface.aphotic zone
The bottom of the ocean is called the __________. Organisms in the benthic zone also feed on detritus. This zone covers the entire ocean floor.benthic zone
The three horizontal zones arethe oceanic zone, the neritic zone and the intertidal zone.
The __________ is the largest zone in the ocean. It consists of 90% of all the surface area of the World Ocean. Sunlight does not penetrate very deeply into this zone. The photic zone is where light penetrates. This accounts for less than 100 meters from the surface. The only producers are photoplankton. oceanic zone
The __________ extends out to the end of the continental shelf. The zone goes down about 500 meters. This is the rainforest of the ocean; it is where most of the ocean's organisms live. Coral reefs are formed here.neritic zone
The __________ is located along the shoreline. It alternates between periods of exposure and submersion twice a day. Organisms must learn to survive both conditions and the constant pounding of the surf. Some attach themselves to rocks while others burrow in the sand. This zone is surrounded by wetlands, salt marshes and mangrove swamps.intertidal zone
__________ are ocean ridges formed by a mutualistic relationship between cnidarians and photosythetic algae; climate change and run-off are just two reasons why these important organisms are now in decline.Coral reefs
Where the Ocean Meets Fresh WaterEstuaries
__________ form a unique marine biome that occurs where a source of fresh water, such as a river, meets the ocean. Therefore, both fresh water and salt water are found in the same vicinity. Mixing results in a diluted (brackish) saltwater.Estuaries

Section 3

Question Answer
The eight major terrestrial biomes on Earth1. Tropical Wet Forest 2. Savannas 3. Subtropical Deserts 4. Chaparral 5. Temperate Grasslands 6. Temperate Forests 7. Boreal Forests 8. Arctic Tundra
Tropical wet forests are also referred to as __________.tropical rainforests
Tropical wet forests/rain forests are found in __________ regions.equatorial
Tropical wet forests/rain forests1. Found near the equator with abundant rainfall, stable temperatures, and high humidity. 2. Although these forests cover only 4 percent of Earth's land surface, they account for more than 20 percent of Earth's net carbon fixation (food production). 3. It has the greatest plant species diversity of any biome on Earth. 4. Dominant trees are very tall with interlacing tops that form a dense canopy, keeping the floor of the forest dimly lit even at mid-day. 5. Many trees are covered with epiphytes, photosynthetic plants that grow on other trees rather than supporting themselves. 6. has the most animal species diversity of any biome and includes birds, reptiles, mammals, and amphibians.
__________ are grasslands with scattered trees, and they are located in Africa, South America, and northern AustraliaSavannas
Savannas1. Grasslands with scattered trees, and they are located in Africa, South America, and northern Australia. 2. Savannas are hot, tropical areas with temperatures averaging from 24 °C to 29 °C (75 °F to 84 °F) 3. Savannas have an extensive dry season; for this reason, forest trees do not grow well. 4. Since fire is an important source of disturbance in this biome, plants have evolved well-developed root systems that allow them to quickly re-sprout after a fire.
Subtropical Deserts1. This biome is very dry; in some years, evaporation exceeds precipitation. 2. Subtropical deserts are characterized by low annual precipitation of fewer than 30 cm (12 in) 3. Low vegetation and low animal diversity 4. Many plants are annuals that grow quickly and reproduce when rainfall does occur, then they die. Other plants are characterized by having a number of adaptations that conserve water, such as deep roots, reduced foliage, and water-storing stems 5. Adaptations in desert animals include nocturnal behavior and burrowing.
Chaparral /Scrub forest1. Found in California, along the Mediterranean Sea, and along the southern coast of Australia 2. Summers are very dry and many chaparral plants are dormant during the summertime. 3. The chaparral vegetation is dominated by shrubs and is adapted to periodic fires, with some plants producing seeds that only germinate after a hot fire. The ashes left behind after a fire are rich in nutrients like nitrogen that fertilize the soil and promote plant regrowth.
Temperate Grasslands/Prairies/Steppes1. Found throughout central North America, where they are known as prairies; they are also in Eurasia, where they are known as steppes 2.Cover huge areas in both the temperate and tropical regions of the world 3. Characterized by low total annual rainfall or uneven seasonal occurrence of rainfall, making conditions inhospitable for forests. 4. Principal grazing mammals include bison and pronghorn antelope in the United States, and wildebeest and gazelle in Africa. 5. Burrowing mammals, such as prairie dogs and other rodents are common.
Temperate Forests/Temperate Deciduous Forests1. Temperate forests are the most common biome in eastern North America, Western Europe, Eastern Asia, Chile, and New Zealand 2. Temperatures range between -30 °C and 30 °C (-22 °F to 86 °F) and drop to below freezing on an annual basis. These temperatures mean that temperate forests have defined growing seasons during the spring, summer, and early fall. 3. Because of the moderate annual rainfall and temperatures, deciduous trees are the dominant plant in this biome 4. Deciduous trees lose their leaves each fall and remain leafless in the winter. Thus, no photosynthesis occurs in the deciduous trees during the dormant winter period. Each spring, new leaves appear as the temperature increases. Because of the dormant period, the net primary productivity of temperate forests is less than that of tropical wet forests. In addition, temperate forests show less diversity of tree species than tropical wet forest biomes.
Boreal Forests/Taiga/Conifer Forest1. The boreal forest, also known as taiga or coniferous forest, is found south of the Arctic Circle and across most of Canada, Alaska, Russia, and northern Europe 2. Dominated by conifer (evergreens) forests, like spruce and fir. 3. Landscape is dotted with lakes, ponds, and bogs and abundance of rainfall allows trees to dominate the landscape. 4. Has very cold winters 5. Is the largest terrestrial biome 6. Characterized by heavy snowfall; trees are shaped with branches directed downward to prevent heavy accumulations of snow from breaking their branches 7. Principal large mammals include moose, black bear, lynx, elk, wolverines, martens, and porcupines and flying insects and birds are prevalent in summer.
Tundra/Arctic tundra/Permafrost1. Located throughout the Arctic regions of the northern hemisphere 2. Plants in the arctic tundra have a very short growing season of approximately 10–12 weeks. However, during this time, there are almost 24 hours of daylight and plant growth is rapid. 3. Plants in the Arctic tundra are generally low to the ground. 4. There is little species diversity, low net primary productivity, and low aboveground biomass. 5. Commonly referred to as the frozen desert because it gets very little rainfall, which cannot penetrate the frozen ground 6. The soils of the Arctic tundra may remain in a perennially frozen state referred to as permafrost. 7. Principal mammals include reindeer, caribou, Arctic wolves, Arctic foxes, Arctic hares, lemmings, and polar bears.