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Set 12 - Ecology Part 1- Chapter 19 - Barron's

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celine's version from 2018-03-02 19:36

Section 1

Question Answer
The study of the interactions of organisms with their physical environment and with each other.Ecology
A group of individuals of one species living one area who can interbreed and interact with each other. They are defined by their size, density, and dispersion.Population
Consists of all the organisms living in one area.Community
Includes all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (non-living) factors with which they interact.Ecosystem
The nonliving variables of an environment, which includes temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and soil.Abiotic factors
Includes all the organisms with which an organism might react such as birds, insects, predators, prey and parasites.Biotic factors
The global ecosystem.Biosphere
What an organism eats and what it needs to survive.Niche
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Section 2

Question Answer
Properties of populationssize, density, dispersion
The total number of individuals in a population. Four variables limit the size of a population: the number of births, the number of deaths, immigration, and emigration.Size
The number of individuals per unit area or volume. Techniques like mark and capture, which is the process of capturing, tagging, and releasing organisms before a special formula is applied, use this factor to determine the approximate total population of an ecosystem.Density
The pattern of spacing of individuals within the area the population inhabits. They are comprised of clumped, uniform, and random patterns.Dispersion
The maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions.Biotic Potential
Factors that influence biotic potential1. Age at which reproduction begins 2. Life span during which the organisms are capable of reproducing 3. Number of reproductive periods in the lifetime 4. Number of offspring the organism is capable of having at one time
The maximum population that the environment can support. It is represented by the variable K and the population size oscillates around this value.Carrying Capacity
A model for population growth in which growth is unrestrained - a population with no predation, parasitism, or competition, no immigration or emigration, and in an environment with unlimited resources.Exponential Growth
These organisms produce few, large young, partake in intensive parenting, are slow to mature, and reproduce many times. An example is mammals.K-strategists
These organisms produce many, small young, partake in little or no parenting, are quick to mature, and reproduce once. An example is insects.R-strategists
Factors that limit population growth.Limiting factors
Limiting factors are divided into 2Density-dependent factors & Density-independent factors
These are the factors that increase directly as the population density increases. They include competition for food, buildup of wastes, predation, and disease.Density-dependent factors
These are the factors whose occurrence is unrelated to the population density. They include earthquakes, storms, and naturally occurring fires and floods.Density-independent factors
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Section 3

Question Answer
5 categories of population interactions1. competition 2. Predation 3. Parasitism 4. Mutualism 5. Commensalism
This states that two species cannot coexist in a community if they share a niche, that is, if they compete for the same resources. Developed by G.F. Gause in his work with Paramecium caudatum and Paramecium aurelia.Competitive Exclusion Principle
By pursuing slightly different resources or obtaining resources in slightly different ways, individuals minimize competition and maximize success. Dividing up resources in this manner is calledResource partitioning
Five species of warblers coexist in spruce trees by feeding on insects in different regions of the tree and by using different feeding behaviors to obtain insects. This is an example of Resource partitioning
As a result of resource partitioning, certain characteristics may enable individuals to obtain resources in their partitions more successfully. Selection of these characteristics reduces competition with individuals in other partitions and leads to a divergence of features. This is calledcharacter displacement or niche shift
Two species of finches that live on two different Galapagos Islands have similar beaks, both suited for using the same food supply. On a third island, they coexist, but due to evolution, the beak of each bird species is different. This minimizes competition by enabling each finch to feed on seeds of a different size. This is an example ofcharacter displacement or niche shift
This can refer to one animal eating another animal, or it can also refer to animals eating plants.Predation
Defenses that plants have evolved for their protection against predationSpines, thorns, and chemical poisons such as morphine, nicotine etc.
Animals have evolved 2 types of defenses1. Active defense 2. Passive defense
Active defensehiding, fleeing, or defending themselves
Passive defensescryptic coloration or camouflage
Different types of passive defensesAposematic Coloration, Batesian Mimicry, & Mullerian Mimicry
The very bright, often red or orange coloration of poisonous animals is a warning that possible predators should avoid them.Aposematic Coloration
This is copycat coloration, where one harmless animal mimics the coloration of another that is poisonous.Batesian Mimicry
Two or more poisonous species resemble each other and gain an advantage from their combined numbers.Mullerian Mimicry
Organisms that feed on plants.Herbivores
Organisms that feed on meat.Carnivores
Organisms that feed on plants and animals that have died and decomposed into organic matter.Detritivores
A symbiotic relationship where both organisms benefit (+/+). An example is the bacteria that live in the human intestine and produce vitamins for the host.Mutualism
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and one is neither helped nor harmed by the other organisms (+/0). Barnacles, which are small, sessile crustaceans that attach themselves to the underside of a whale, benefit by gaining access to a variety of food sources as the whale swims into different areas. The whale is unaware of the barnacle.Commensalism
A symbiotic relationship (+/-) where one organism, the parasite, benefits while the host is harmed. A tapeworm in the human intestine is an example.Parasitism
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Section 4

Question Answer
The pathway along which energy is transferred from one trophic or feeding level to another. Energy, in the form of food, moves from the producers to the herbivores to the carnivores.Food chain
The interconnected ecological relationships between organisms within an ecosystem.Food web
These organisms convert light energy to chemical bond energy and have the greatest biomass of any trophic level. They include green plants, diatoms, and phytoplankton.Producers
These eat producers and are herbivores. Examples include grasshoppers and zooplankton (microscopic arthropods).Primary Consumers
These eat primary consumers and are carnivores. Examples include frogs and small fish.Secondary Consumers
These eat secondary consumers, are carnivores, and are at top of the food chain.Tertiary Consumers
Least stable trophic level and most sensitive to fluctuation compared to other trophic levels.Tertiary Consumers
The rate at which organic matter is created by producers.Productivity
The amount of energy converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis per unit time in an ecosystem.Gross Primary Productivity
The gross primary productivity minus the energy used by the primary producers for respiration.Net Primary Productivity
Organisms occupying higher trophic levels have great concentration of accumulated toxins stored in their bodies than those at lower trophic levels.Biological Magnification
Result of Biological MagnificationOrganisms at higher levels of food chain more at risk and suffer greater than those organisms lower in the food chain
Example of Biological magnificationNon degradable pesticides are sprayed onto plants which were then rated by field mice who where then eaten by a hawk. The hawk suffers greater than the mouse from the pesticide. Pesticide, DDT has been outlawed to save bald eagle from extinction.
Organisms recycle nutrients back to the soil to nourish plants.Decomposers
Examples of decomposersBacteria & Fungi
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Section 5

Question Answer
A series of progressive changes in the species that make up a community over time.Ecological succession
Ecologists usually identify two types of succession, which differ in their starting points:Primary Ecological Succession & Secondary Succession
Rebuilding an ecosystem in a lifeless area where the soil has been removed.Primary Ecological Succession
In ------------------, newly exposed or newly formed rock is colonized by living things for the first time.Primary Ecological Succession
The process of reestablishing an ecosystem in an area where the existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact.Secondary Succession
In --------------------, an area that was previously occupied by living things is disturbed, then re-colonized following the disturbance.Secondary Succession
In primary succession, first, weathering and other natural forces break down the substrate, rock, enough for the establishment of certain hearty plants and lichens with few soil requirements, known asPioneer species
The first organisms to inhabit a barren area.Pioneer Organisms
A stable, self-perpetuating community established by succession and sequential development and considered semi permanentClimax community
A disaster that destroys an ecosystem.Blowout
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