Set 10 - Ecology Part 2 - My Max Score

celine's version from 2018-02-24 22:04

Section 1

Question Answer
Ecosystem communities are organized into ____________, or feeding, levels. trophic
A particular position occupied by a group of organisms in a food chain - primary producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, or tertiary consumertrophic level
____________ illustrate how energy flows through ecosystems, including how efficiently organisms acquire and use it.Food webs
Autotrophs, producers in food webs, can be ____________ or ____________photosynthetic or chemosynthetic
An organism that can synthesize its own food by using light as a source of energyphotoautotroph
A simple organism, such as a protozoan, that derives its energy from chemical processes rather than photosynthesischemoautotroph
Photoautotrophs use light energy to synthesize their own food, while chemoautotrophs use ____________ molecules.inorganic
Chemoautotrophs are usually ____________ that live in ecosystems where sunlight is unavailable.bacteria
An organism that requires an external supply of energy in the form of food, as it cannot synthesize its ownheterotroph
Heterotrophs cannot synthesize their own energy, but must obtain it from autotrophs or other heterotrophs; they act as ____________ in food webs.consumers
The total mass of all living things within a specific area, habitat, etc.biomass
A ____________ is the total mass of living and previously-living organisms within a trophic level; ecosystems have characteristic amounts of biomass at each trophic level.biomass
____________, measured by gross and net primary productivity, is defined as the amount of energy that is incorporated into a biomass.Productivity
The ___________ of the primary producers ( gross primary productivity ) is important to ecosystems because these organisms bring energy to other living organisms.productivity
rate at which photosynthetic primary producers incorporate energy from the sungross primary productivity
energy that remains in the primary producers after accounting for the organisms’ respiration and heat lossnet primary productivity
Net primary productivity (energy that remains in the primary producers after accounting for respiration and heat loss) is available to the___________ at the next trophic level.primary consumers
Energy is lost as it is transferred between ___________trophic levels
Energy decreases as it moves up ___________ because energy is lost as metabolic heat when the organisms from one trophic level are consumed by organisms from the next level.trophic levels
Trophic level transfer efficiency (TLTE) measures the __________ that is transferred between trophic levels.amount of energy
A food chain can usually sustain no more than __________ before all the energy is used up.six energy transfers
Net production efficiency (NPE) measures __________ each trophic level uses and incorporates the energy from its food into biomass to fuel the next trophic efficiently

Section 2

Question Answer
__________, which can be inverted or upright, depict biomass, energy, and the number of organisms in each trophic level.Ecological pyramids
Diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter or numbers of organisms within each trophic level in a food chain or food webecological pyramid
Pyramids of numbers can be either __________, depending on the ecosystem.upright or inverted
When toxic substances are introduced into the environment, organisms at the __________ trophic levels suffer the most damage.highest
The process, in an ecosystem, in which a higher concentration of a substance in an organism is obtained higher up the food chainbiomagnification
__________ increases the concentration of toxic substances in organisms at higher trophic levels.Biomagnification
A chlorinated hydrocarbon which is mainly used as an insecticide DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)
__________ is an example of a substance that biomagnifies; birds accumulate sufficient amounts of DDT from eating fish to cause adverse effects on bird populations.DDT
Consumers with few to no predators of their own, residing at the top of their food chainApex consumer

Section 3

Question Answer
The elemental components of organic matter are cycled through the biosphere in an interconnected process called the __________.biogeochemical cycle
Cycling of mineral nutrients through ecosystems and through the non-living worldbiogeochemical cycle
Carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur are __________ & __________ in the atmosphere, on land, in water, or beneath the earth’s surface.conserved and recycled
Materials are recycled via __________, __________, __________, and the __________.erosion, weathering, water drainage, movement of tectonic plates
Water is essential to all living processes, while __________ is found in all organic macromolecules. Nitrogen and phosphorus are major components of __________ and play major roles in agriculture. Sulfur plays a role in the three-dimensional folding of __________ and is released into the atmosphere by the burning of __________.carbon, nucleic acids, proteins, fossil fuels
Water has a large effect on __________, __________, and __________ and is continuously cycled through the environment.climate, ecosystems, and living organisms
The average time a particular molecule of water will remain in a body of waterresidence time
Water with a longer residence time, such as water in oceans and glaciers, is not available for __________, which occurs via evaporation.short-term cycling
The conversion of a gas to a liquid; the condensate so formedcondensation
Overland flow of excess water (with or without accumulated contaminants) that cannot be absorbed by the ground as infiltrationsurface runoff
The process of a liquid converting to the gaseous stateEvaporation
The transition of a substance from the solid phase directly to the vapor state such that it does not pass through the intermediate liquid phasesublimation
Surface water evaporates or sublimates which deposits large amounts of __________ into the atmosphere.water vapor
Water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into clouds and is eventually followed by __________, which returns water to the earth’s surface.precipitation
Water from the land and oceans enters the atmosphere by __________ or __________, where it condenses into clouds and falls as __________. Precipitated water may enter freshwater bodies or infiltrate the soil. The cycle is complete when surface or groundwater re-enters the __________.evaporation, sublimation, rain or snow, ocean

Section 4

Question Answer
Carbon enters the atmosphere in the form of __________ via the __________ and returns to __________ via __________.carbon dioxide, carbon cycle, organic carbon, photosynthesis
Carbon is present in all __________; carbon compounds contain large amounts of energy, which humans use as molecules
The __________ carbon cycle is the rapid exchange of carbon among living things; autotrophs use carbon dioxide produced by heterotrophs to produce glucose and oxygen, which are then utilized by heterotrophs.biological
The __________ carbon cycle occurs at a much slower rate than the biological cycle since carbon is stored in carbon reservoirs for long periods of time.biogeochemical
Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere dissolves in water, combining with water molecules to form __________, which then ionizes to __________ and __________.carbonic acid, carbonate and bicarbonate ions
Most of the carbon in the ocean is in the form of __________, which can combine with seawater calcium to form calcium carbonate (CaCO3), a major component of marine organism shells.bicarbonate ions
__________ can enter the soil as a result of the decomposition of living organisms, the weathering of rocks, the eruption of volcanoes, and other geothermal systems.Carbon
Movement of one tectonic plate beneath anothersubduction
resource, such as fossil fuel, that is either regenerated very slowly or not at allnon-renewable resource
Carbon cycle: Carbon dioxide gas exists in the atmosphere and is dissolved in water. __________ converts carbon dioxide gas to __________, while __________ cycles the organic carbon back into carbon dioxide gas. Long-term storage of organic carbon occurs when matter from living organisms is buried deep underground and becomes __________. Volcanic activity and human emissions bring this stored carbon back into the __________.Photosynthesis, organic carbon, respiration, fossilized, carbon cycle
Nitrogen, the most abundant gas in the atmosphore, is cycled through the biosphere via the multi-step process of __________, which is carried out by bacteria.nitrogen fixation
Process of converting nitrates into nitrogen gas, especially by the action of bacteriadenitrification
The conversion of ammonium into nitrites (NO2−) by nitrifying bacterianitrification
The formation of ammonia or its compounds from nitrogenous compounds, especially as a result of bacterial decompositionammonification
Bacteria, such as __________, convert nitrogen into nitrogen gas via nitrogen fixation.cyanobacteria
Nitrogen fixation occurs in three steps: __________, __________, and __________.ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification
Human activity can release nitrogen into the environment by the combustion of __________ and by the use of __________ in agriculture.fossil fuels, artificial fertilizers
Atmospheric nitrogen is responsible for __________, the release of __________, and __________.acid rain, greenhouse gasses, eutrophication
Nitrogen fixation can be performed by __________; nitrogen falls to the ocean floor as sediment and is then moved to land, becoming incorporated into terrestrial rock.marine bacteria
Nitrogen fixation: Nitrogen enters the living world from the atmosphere via __________. This nitrogen and nitrogenous waste from animals is then processed back into gaseous nitrogen by _________, which also supply terrestrial food webs with the organic nitrogen they need.nitrogen-fixing bacteria, soil bacteria

Section 5

Question Answer
Phosphorus is an essential element of living things, but, in excess, it can cause ---------------- to ecosystems.damage
Process whereby excess levels of nitrogen or phosphorus cause excessive growth of microorganisms, depleting dissolved oxygen levels and kill ecosystem faunaeutrophication
An area within a freshwater or marine ecosystem where large areas are depleted of their normal flora and fauna; caused by excessive nutrient pollutiondead zone
Phosphorus cycle: In nature, phosphorus exists as the -----------------------------. Weathering of rocks and volcanic activity releases --------------------------- into the soil, water, and air, where it becomes available to terrestrial food webs. Phosphate enters the oceans via surface runoff, groundwater flow, and river flow. Phosphate dissolved in ocean water cycles into marine food webs. Some phosphate from the marine food webs falls to the ocean floor, where it forms -----------------.phosphate ion (PO43−), phosphate, sediment
Excess phosphorus and nitrogen in the ecosystem leads to the death of many organisms, causing ----------------.dead zones
Dead zones are caused by by -------------------------, oil spills, ------------------------------, and other human activities.eutrophication, dumping of toxic chemicals
Sulfur is deposited on land as ------------------------, fallout, and rock weathering, and reintroduced when organisms -------------------.precipitation, decompose
Sulfur is an essential element for the macromolecules of living things since it determines the ------------------------ of proteins.3-D folding patterns
Direct deposit of solid minerals on land or in the ocean from the atmospherefallout
Corrosive rain caused by rainwater falling to the ground through sulfur dioxide gas, turning it into weak sulfuric acid; can damage structures and ecosystemsacid rain
Sulfur cycle: Sulfur dioxide from the atmosphere becomes available to terrestrial and marine ecosystems when it is dissolved in precipitation as weak ---------------- or when it falls directly to the earth as ------------------------. Weathering of rocks also makes sulfates available to terrestrial ecosystems. ------------------- of living organisms returns sulfates to the ocean, soil, and atmosphere.sulfuric acid, fallout, decomposition
The burning of -------------------- increases the amount of sulfide in the atmosphere and causes acid rain.fossil fuels
Acid rain is corrosive rain that causes damage to aquatic ecosystems by lowering the ----------------------, killing many of the resident fauna; it also degrades buildings and human-made structures.pH of lakes

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