Session Prep 6-7

mhewett's version from 2016-06-23 21:38

Session Prep 6

Question Answer
What is the causative agent of 5ths disease? What are the 2 other terms for 5th disease?Parvovirus B19; erythema infectiosum, slapped check appearance
Compare chickenpox and smallpox in terms of the synchrony/asynchrony between lesional evolution?Chickenpox: Lesions appear in different stages of evolution (asynchrony). Vesicular pustular crusts are seen.
Smallpox: lesions appear SAME stage of evolution (synchrony). Same age vessicle.
What type of coxsackie virus is associated with myocarditis?COX B
What type of coxsackie virus is associated with hand-foot-mouth disease?COX-A
What virus causes measles?Rubeola
What virus causes German measles?Rubella
What type of disease or disorder does rotavirus cause?Causes gastroenteritis and diarrhea
To what family does rotavirus belong?Reoviridae (dsDNA)
What 4 classes of antibiotics work to inhibit translation in bacteria?aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolides (mnemonic: Mean CAT)
What similarity do methotrexate, trimethoprim, and pyrimethamine have in common in terms of their mechanisms of action?all inhibit dihydrofolate reductase; all inhibit DNA
What is the general mechanism of action of rifampin and what disease is it classically used to treat?Transcription inhibitor; used to treat mycobacterium TB
At what level does the spinal cord end in most people?L1-2
Why is the lower lumbar spine particularly most susceptible to herniated intervertebral discs?because PLL begins to narrow in the lumbar spine and at L4-5 it is half as wide; also increased vertical force
What muscle is the primary flexor of the hip?iliopsoas
How does a pathologically small Ferguson's angle affect the curvature of the lumbar spine?strains it, flat spine
If a patient is suffering from a herniated L3 intervertebral disc, what nerve root will be affected?L4
What are the major types of spina bifida and what does each represent in terms of contents herniated?Occulta - None
Meningocele - meninges
Meningomyelocele - meninges and nerve roots
Rachischisis - completely open
What is the term with respect for anterior displacement of one vertebra with respect in terms of contents herniated?spondylolisthesis***
In what dermatome does the umbilicus lie?T10
What is the vector of hantavirus? What body system is most affected by the hantavirus infection?vector: deer mice; causes a fulminant respiratory infection
what is the causative agent of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis?measles / rubeola virus
Name 4 types of prion diseasesKuru - humans; creutzfeldt - jakob: humans; scrapie - sheep; Mad cow: cattle
What is the generic term for HIV (or any other virus) when it integrates itself into the host cell's genome?provirus
What HIV glycoprotein mediates HIV binding to the CD4 receptor?Env gp120
What HIV Glycoprotein mediates HIV fusion with cell?ENV gp41
Is cryptococcus a yeast or a mold?yeast; causes both pneumonia and meningitis
If a tissue specimen shows cigar shaped budding yeast what is the likely causative agent?Sub-Q sporotrichosis
If a slide is made from a vaginal swab and you see germ tubes and pseudohyphae what infection probably exists?Candidiasis
List the different stages of plasmodial development from mosquito bite to reinfection in another mosquito. mosquito injects sporozoites; sporozoite travels to liver; releases Trophozoite to infect RBCs; RBCs release merozoites; merozoites picked up by feeding mosquito
What form of plasmodium is the most severe and life-threatening one?Falciparum
What is the causative agent of Kala-Azar? What is another name for this disease?Black sickness; causative agent is Leishmania delvani
What is the vector of chagas disease? kissing bug; carries trypanosoma cruzi
What is the DOC for treatment of infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and trichomonas?Metronidazole
Compare Schistosoma: mansoni, japonicum, haematobium in terms of location of the veins they settle in.mansoni - veins of colon
japonicum - veins of small intestine
hematobium - veins of bladder
What is the generic term for cestodes?tapeworms
What type of nematode causes perianal pruritis esp at night?enterobius vermicularis***; aka Pin worm
If the Km of an enzyme is high, what is its affinity for the substrate?Low
What 2 amino acids does trypsin cleave? does it cleave at the carboxy or amino side of those amino acids?arginine and lysine; cleaves at carboxy end***
What amino acid is the source of GABA?glutamate
What are exotoxins made of?proteins
What PAS character do the mucosal macrophages of Whipple's disease patients have?PAS +
Why is Takayasu disease called the pulseless disease?Granulomas formed in elastic arch of aorta; limits the elastic recoil****
Of E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, which one(s) are motile?E coli, Salmonella
What antibody type can cross the placenta?IgG
How does Chloroquine and primaquine kill Plasmodia?chloroquine: - heme into toxin; - lyses RBCs; - alkalize food vacuoles; - inhibits DNA synthesis
Primaquine: - only functions to kill hypnozoites
What type of staph infection is most common in UTIs?Staph-saprophyticus; but know E.coli is the most common cause of UTIs
What stain is used to visualize Cryptococcus?india ink
What enzyme does methotrexate inhibit? What effect does this have moleculary in terms of what major products can no longer be produced?inhibits dihydrofolate reductase; inhibits DNA
What is the DOC for leishmaniasis?Stibogluconate
What are the common contaminating agents/sources that frequently serve to contaminate bodies of water with Leptospira interrogans?Dog, Cat, Rat - urine
What type of HLA is psoriatic arthritis associated? What other diseases are associated with this HLA type?HLA-B27; also seen with ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis (aka reiters syndrome)
what is the #1 cause of amenorrhea?pregnancy lol
Is prader willi maternal or paternal deletion?paternal 15q 11-13 chromosome
what does the pentose phosphate shunt provide?Key rate limiting enzyme is Glucose 6-P dehydrogenase, which allows the pathway to start; generates NADPH; The primary results of the Pathway are: The generation of reducing equivalents, in the form of NADPH, used in reductive biosynthesis reactions within cells. (e.g. fatty acid synthesis)
Production of ribose-5-phosphate (R5P), used in the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids.
Production of erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P), used in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids.
How is the pentose phosphate pathway linked to RBCs?The PPP supplies the red blood cell with NADPH, which in turn maintains the reduced state of glutathione. The inability to maintain reduced glutathione in red blood cells leads to increased accumulation of peroxides, predominantly H2O2, that in turn results in a weakening of the cell membrane and concomitant hemolysis. Accumulation of H2O2 also leads to increased rates of oxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin that also weakens the cell wall. Glutathione removes peroxides via the action of glutathione peroxidase. The PPP in erythrocytes is, in essence, the only pathway for these cells to produce NADPH. Any defect in the production of NADPH could, therefore, have profound effects on erythrocyte survival
Draw and understand the intrinsic and extrinsic pathwayspic

Session Prep 7

Question Answer
What is the most common, most specific side effect of cisplatin? cyclophosphamide? bleomycin?cisplatin - renal toxicity; cyclophosphamide - hemorrhagic cystitis; bleomycin - pulmonary fibrosis
What enzyme is missing in phenylketonuria?phenylalanine hydroxylase
What is the triad for pellagra?dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea (B3 - niacin)
Name the main steps from phenylalanine to the production of epinephrine.phenylalanine --> tyrosine --> dopamine --> NE --> epi
What three amino acids build up in maple syrup disease?ile, leu, val
What kind of sugar is glucose, based on the numbers of carbons it has?hexose
Compare and contrast hexokinase and glucokinase in terms of the tissues in which they are found and their affinity for glucose.glucokinase - liver and beta cells of pancreas - low affinity for glucose
hexokinase - ubiquitous - high affinity for glucose
What types of glycosidic bonds exist between the sugars of sucrose, glycogen, and cellulose?sucrose - alpha1, beta2
glycogen, alpha1->6, alpha1-->4
cellulose, beta 1-->4
Lactose deficiency occurs because of a defect in what enzyme?Lactase def.
What are the main clinical effects of fructosuria versus fructose intolerance?fructosuria (def in fructokinase) - fructose in blood or urine - no clinical effects
fructose intolerance (def of aldolase B) - can lead to severe hypoglyce,ia, jaundice, cirrohosis
Why does Von Gierke disease not involve skeletal muscle?G6PD def --> does not affect skeletal muscle because it does not have G6PD
What cyclooxygenase inhibitor has no anti-inflammatory activity systemically?acetaminophen
Name the 3 primary enzymes involved in the process of breaking glycogen down into glucose?G6PD, phosphorylase, gluco mutase
What 2 mucopolysaccharidoses have a defect in alpha-L iduronidase?Hurler's syndrome, Scheie syndrome
Classify the following fatty acids in terms of whether they are saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated? palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acidpalmitic acid - saturated
linoleic acid - polyunsaturated
oleic acid - monounsaturated
What is enterohepatic circulation?release and reabsorption of bile salts
Describe the 4 components of a triglyceride and glycerophospholipid.triglyceride - glycerol + 3 fatty acids
glycophospholipid - 2 fatty acids + glycerol + a head
What type of lipid is lecithin? is cardiolipin?lecithin - glycerophospholipid
cardiolipin - glycerophospholipid
What sphingolipidoses is associated with blindness and a cherry red macula, and is more associated with Ashkenazi Jews?Tay - Sachs
What enzyme is deficient in Gaucher's disease?beta-glucocerebrosidase
Describe the mechanism for photosensitivity associated with porphyrias?porphyrin excess in the skin --> get sunlight --> porphyrin --> O2 in tissue and rad O2 supply --> photosensitivity
What steps of heme synthesis does lead inhibit?iron into porphyrin ring and delta ala
By what 2 metabolic processes does the liver maintain glucose levels?glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis
In a normal, non-fasted human, what is the only energy source for the brain? for RBCs? How does this differ for these two tissues under states of starvation?brain: non-fasted = glucose, fasted = glucose + ketones; RBCs: both fasted and non-fasted = glucose
What is the termed for the disorder marked by thiamine deficiency?Beriberi
What virus causes measles?Rubeolla
What Coxsackie virus causes myocarditis?Coxsackie B virus
What is the DOC for Trichomonas? for chlamydia trachomatis? for mycoplasma pneumoniae? for mycobacterium leprae?Trichomonas - metronidazole; c. trachomatis - doxycycline; m. pneumoniae - azithromycin; m. leprae - dapsone + rifampin
What ribosomal subunit is acted upon by AGs? by tetracyclines? by chloramphenicol? by macrolides?aminoglycosides + tetracyclines = 30s; chloramphenicol + macrolides = 50s
In what developmental stage are Plasmodia when they are injected into the human body?sporozoites
What is the etiologic agent for infectious mononucleosis?EBV