Session Prep 4-5

mhewett's version from 2016-06-19 18:47

Session 4 Prep

Question Answer
Is serum calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase high, normal, or low in osteoporosis? in osteomalacia? in Pagets disease?osteoporosis - all are normal, just decreased bone mass
osteomalacia - serum calcium and phosphatase are low, and alk phos is high
Pagets disease - serum calcium and phosphatase are normal and alk phos is high
What is the most common type of cartilage?hyaline cartilage
What type of bone cancer is characterized by being extremely aggressive, primarily affecting the pelvis and long bones (in the marrow cavities), and is more prevalent in young males?Ewing Sarcoma
Why are the calf areas of Duchenne Muscular dystrophy patients very large?Pseudo hypertrophy with fatty and CT infiltrate
What is the most common supratentorial tumor in children?Craniopharyngoma
What CNS disorder is marked by bradykinesia, a resting tremor, and rigidity?Parkinson's Disease
If one is spastic with much increased DTRs, is the problem probably related to LMN or UMN lesion?upper motor nerve lesion
What is the typical age of onset for MS? What is the gross anomaly created in this disease that involves the NS - what does it do to the neurons?20-40s --> autoimmune inflammation and demylination of CNS
What is the primary hormone that is produce in excess in Cushing's syndrome?cortisol (if disease than ACTH)
What general class of adrenal products produced is produced in excess in Conn's disease, and what is its effect on serum sodium levels?aldosterone and increases Na+
Contrast Grave's disease and Plummer's hyperthyroidism in terms of follicle size and colloid amount in thyroid.Graves - follicle is small and decreased colloid
Plummer's - follicle is large and colloid increased
What are the 4 major types of thyroid tumors and which is the most common?papillary carcinoma (most common); follicular carcinoma; medullary carcinoma; aplastic
Are the PTH and calcium serum levels high, low, or normal in hypoparathyroidism? in psuedohypoparathyroidism?hypoparathyroidism - both decreased
pseudo - PTH increased and serum calcium decreased
Is DM I or DM II more prone to ketoacidosis? more associated with obesity?DM I - ketoacidosis
DM II - obesity
What are the 4 organs involved in MEN type I?pituitary ; parathyroids; pancrease; adrenal gland
What are the ABCs of melanoma?asymmetry; border irregularity; color variation
What skin disease arises due to autoAB directed against the intercellular junctions between keratinocytes?Pemphigus Vulgaris
What two organs are most affected by mercury poisoning?brain and kidney
What guanine analog is the DOC for HSV 1 and 2?acyclovir
What color are gram positive bacteria after Gram staining?blue and purple
What kind of colitis is at risk after the use of broad-spectrum AB? What is the causative agent?pseudomembranous colitis --> c. difficle
The destruction of what organ causes the deaths associated with acetaminophen OD? liver
Of what are most renal calculi comprised?calcium
What kind of aneurysm are Marfans pts most predisposed to?dissecting aortic aneurysm
What type of germ cell tumor is associated with painless enlargement of the testes, and is often curable because of its radio-sensitivity?seminoma
What is the causative agent of condyloma acuminatum? condyloma lata?acuminatum - HPV
lata - treponema pallidum
What is the source of alpha-amanitin?posioned mushrooms and toadstools (inhibitor of RNA pol II)
If patient is + for HBsAg, what do we know? they currently have the disease
If a patient presents with a small amount of rectal pain, a sig amount of bright red blood in the stool, and numerous pseudopolyps on colonoscopy, from what disease does the patient suffer?ulcerative colitis
What kinds of tumors (besides those seen possibly with associated colon carcinoma) are associated with Turcot's disease?CNS tumors
What is the #1 germ cell tumor of men?seminoma
What are the 4 sub types of Hodgkin's disease and how does this relate to R-S cells?lymphocyte-rich; nodular sclerosis; mixed-cellularity; lymphocyte-depleted
the more R-S cells you have means the worse your prognosis is
What is the inheritance pattern of achondroplasia?autosomal dominant
How do Gilber and Crigler-Najjar differ in terms of uptake?Gilbert - mildly impaired
Crigler-Najjar - severely impaired
What 3 cell types do C3a and C5a stimulate to release?mast cells, basophils, platelets

Session 5 Prep

Question Answer
For what type of fungal infections in general is amphotericin used?Aspergillus and Cryptococcal meningitis
What is the DOC for amebiasis?Metronidazole
What is the DOC for CMV?ganciclovir
What is the DOC for Pneumocystis carinii (aka jiroveci)?Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole
What is the DOC for Cryptococcus neoformans?Fluconazole or Amphotericin B
What type of bacterium has NO cell wall?Mycoplasma
What effect does botulinum toxin have on nerves? What effect does this have on the body?inhibits the release of Ach; causes flaccid paralysis
How would one classify mycobacterium tuberculosis in terms of oxygen requirement?obligate aerobe
What are the 2 most common causes of otitis media?Strep pneumonia & Haemophilus influenza
What is the most common cause for pneumonia in your adults?mycoplasma
What is the most common cause of meningitis in neonates?1. strep agalactiae 2. E.coli 3. Listeria
What is the most common cause of bacterial endocarditis?strep viridans
What is the ONLY species that is a group A beta hemolytic strep?strep pyogenes
Describe the viridans streptococci in terms of hemolytic nature, bile solubility, and Optochin sensitivityalpha-hemolytic strep, causes incomplete hemolysis (green halo)
bile insoluble
Optochin insensitive
Infection with what organism is associated with Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome?Meningococcus
what is the gram staining character of E.coli?Gram Neg; Non-acid fast
What 2 bacteria look like chinese characters under the microscope?Corynebacterium & Listeria
What are the 2 major toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens and what diseases are caused as a result?alpha toxin - gas gangrene; enterotoxin - food poisoning
Compare E.coli, Salomella, and Shigella in terms of their gram staining character, motility, and lactose fermintationE.coli: motile, lactose +, Gram -
Salmonella: Gram -, motile, lactose -
Shigella: gram -, non motile, lactose -
All are gram (-), Only Ecoli is lactose +, Between salmonella and shigella only salmonella is motile
What is the most common cause of urinary tract infections?e.coli


Question Answer
What kind of organism causes a pneumonia where you see current jelly sputum?Klebsiella
what comma shaped organism may cause rice water stool?vibrio cholera
What type of injury often results in Pasturella infection? What type of infections are common to pasteurella infection?cat or dog bite; see cellulitis and osteomyelitis
What organism creates an greenish blue exudate or pus that often smells musty and is particulary troublesome in burn pts?Pseudomonas
Is most illness and morbidity of TB due to primary infection of due to reactiviation of a previous infection?reactivation
What 2 bacteria genera were once confused with fungi due to their filamentous branching growth? How do these 2 genre differ in their natural habitats and oxygen consumption?Actinomyces: - anaerobic, - mouth flora
Nocardia: - aerobic, - found in soil
What is the causative agent of Lyme disease and what is the primary lesion like after infection?B. burgdorferi causes an expanding macule/papule with a central clearing aka erythema migrans
In what form are chlamydia when they are infective?elementary bodies
What is the most common causative agent of non-gonoccocal urethritis?C. trachomatis
What are the 3 types of typhus, thier causative agens, and thier vectors?Epidemic: - R. prowazekii, - lice vector, - human reservor
Endemic: - R.typhi, - fleas vector, - rodents reservior
what demyelination disease often follows a viral infection and affects the peripheral nerve, mostly motor, and ascends those peripheral nerves to cause muscle weakness and paralysis?Guien-Barre
How many thoracic verterbrae are there?12
What 5 structures must be present in order for a rib to be a typical rib?tubercle, head, neck, shaft, angle
The spine of the scapula is at what vertebral level?T3
What is the route of transmission and the incubation time for Hep C?Parental: 1-2 months
What is the composition of most kidney stones?calcium
What 2 species of bacteria are associated with the development of struvite?staghorn calculi*** 1. Proteus 2. Staph Ceprophiticus
What organs are affected by MEN1 and MEN2AMEN1: -Pancreas, -Pituitary, -Parathyroid, -Adrenal Cortex
MEN Type 2A: -parathyroid, -thyroid medulla, -adrenal medulla
What do the soles of the feet look like in Friedreich's ataxia pts?Pez Cavitis --> cavity in sole of foot
What is affected in ALS?both upper and lower motor neurons are affected
what 2 bones when fractured are well known to cause avascular necorosis?scaphoid and femoral head
Is there increased conjugated or unconjugated serum bilirubin in Gilbert's, Crigler-Najjar, Dubin Johnson, Rotor?Gilberts - increased unconjugated
Crigler Najjar - increased unconjugated
Dubin-Johnson increased conjuagted
in Rotor - increased conjuagted
What is the difference and dangers associated with complete vs incomplete hydatiform moles?complete: - complete paternal genetic organism, - never forms in utero, - increases the risk of cancer - coriocarcinoma
incomplete: - ovum and sperm, - small embryo forms but NEVER develops
A 20 yr old male presents with complaints of several bouts of fairly blood loose stool over the past yr. He has mild abdominal pain, and has not started to notice that he has symptomatic arthritis. He was diagnosed with iritis last week. What disease tops your list of differential diagnoses for the bloody stool?Ulcerative colitis