Create
Learn
Share

Session Prep 12

rename
mhewett's version from 2016-07-07 03:44

Session Prep 12

Question Answer
What is the first line drug for newly diagnosed Type II diabetes mellitus?Metformin
Name the primary defect that results in the following type of hyperlipidemia: Type ILipoprotein lipase
Name the primary defect that results in the following type of hyperlipidemia: Type IIA, Type IIBLDL receptor; B100 mutation
Name the primary defect that results in the following type of hyperlipidemia: Type IIIMutated APO E
Name the primary defect that results in the following type of hyperlipidemia: Type IVOverproduction of VLDL with underutilization of VLDL
How many kcal/g of energy are produced by the metabolism of carbohydrates? Fats? Proteins?4 kcal/g; 9 kcal/g; 4 kcal/g
What is the primary disturbance causing respiratory acidosis? Metabolic acidosis?Increase PCO2; Decrease HCO3
What are the two normal hemoglobins of the adult? What type of hemoglobin will be elevated in hyperglycemic or diabetic states?(1) HbA2) HbA2; HbA1c
Name the 4 situations listed in the text that will serve to reduce the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin.(1) Increased H+ (decreased pH) (2) Increased CO2 (3) Increased 2,3-DPG (4) Increased temperature
What are the two primary functions of albumin as a blood protein?(1) Maintain oncotic pressure (2) Binding of hormones and drugs
What part of the circulatory system holds the largest volume of blood? Has the greatest cross-sectional area? Provides the greatest resistance?Largest volume: Veins; Cross sectional area: Capillaries; Greatest resistance: Arterioles
To what two vessels does the ductus arteriosus connect? With patent ductus arteriosus, what body parts generally receive fully oxygenated blood despite the PDA?Pulmonary artery to Aorta; Whole body
At what part of the renal tubule do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors function? Loop diuretics? Thiazides?Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT); Loop of Henle; Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
What part of the kidney tubule functions in glucose and amino acid resorption? Potassium secretion?Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT); Late descending convoluted tubule (DCT and collecting duct)
What is a normal value for the GFR?125 ml/min
Is the intracellular cellular volume (ICV) increased, decreased, or unchanged in hypotonic dehydration? In hypotonic hydration? Isotonic dehydration?Increased; Increased; Unchanged
In what part of the kidney is the macular densa found? What does the macular densa "sense" to play a role in renin release?Distal convoluted tubule (DCT); Senses decreased NaCl delivery
What is the renin level (high, low, normal) in Bartter's syndrome? What is the blood pressure (high, low, normal)?High; Normal
What metabolic process does niacin prevent in adipocytes? What is its primary ADR?Lipolysis; Cutaneous flushing
What enzyme is inhibited by statins, such as lovastatin?HMG-CoA reductase
Cimetidine and ranitidine block what receptor?H2 receptors
What molecule transports iron? What 2 molecules store iron?Transferrin; (1) Ferritin (2) Hemosiderin
List the main secretory products of gastric chief cells, parietal cells, and mucus cells.Chief: Pepsinogen; Parietal: HCl and Intrinsic factor (IF); Mucus: Mucus
What is the direct result of secretin release? Of CCK release?Secretion of HCO3 from pancreas; Gallbladder contraction and release of exocrine enzymes from pancreas for digestion
What is the disease entity defined by hyperaldosteronism?Conn's syndrome
What 3 effects does insulin generally have on the liver in terms of metabolic pathways?(1) Stimulates glycogenesis (2) Decreases gluconeogenesis (3) Stimulates lipogenesis
State at what ages a child will develop the following abilities or fears: (1) Sits alone (2) Stands alone (3) Walks alone(1) 7 mo. (2) 14 mo. (3) 15 mo.
State at what ages a child will develop the following abilities or fears: (1) Separation anxiety (2) Stands holding onto nearby objects(1) 1-3 yrs (2) 10 mo.
What is the average IQ score?100
Define the IQ ranges for mild mental retardation (MR), moderate MR, severe MR, and profound MR.Mild: 55-70; Moderate: 40-55; Severe: 25-40; Profound: <25
Does operant conditioning or classical conditioning work on reflexive behavior? Which one involves a reward or punishment dependent upon the response to the stimulus?Classical; Operant
What do nodules, be they macronodular or micronodular, indicate about the liver?Damaged liver is trying to regenerate
At what vertebral level is the sternal notch? the sternal angle?T2; T4
What is the motion that should be used in assessing the OA?Translation
What type of hypersensitivity is characterized by urticaria, erythema, and bronchiole constricion?Type I
What Autoantibody is associated with rheumatoid arthritis? SLE? Celiac sprue? Wegener's granulomatosis?Anti-IgG (RF); Anti dsDNA; Anti-gladin; C-ANCA
What cell type is stimulated by IL-4 and IL-5?B-cells
What is the effect of nitric oxide on vasculature?Vasodilation.
What is the mechanism of action of dipyridamole? Name an indication for its use?Inhibits PDE and thromboxane; Platelet aggregation inhibitor
What is the mechanism of action (MOA) of doxorubicin? What general class of disease is it used to treat? What is a "classic" side effect (AE) of doxorubicine, about which you should warn your patient to avoid undue fear?MOA: Creates radicals, intercalates DNA, decreases IP3; Use: Treats cancers; AE: Red urine
What disease is endemic to the Southwest US and is marked by fever, cough, and arthralgia?Coccidioidmycosis
What disorder is marked by personality changes, intellectual deterioration, and autonomic or motor dysfunctions, and is a disorder that occurs as a result of HIV infection?HIV encephalophathy
What are the three most common antibiotics to cause pseudomembranous colitis?(1) Cephalsporins (2) Clindamycin (3) Ampicillin
What are the two drugs of choice for pseudomembranous colitis?(1) Vancomycin (2) Metronidazole
memorize