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Semester 4 Diabetes Drugs

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benryan95's version from 2015-05-17 19:54

Section 1

Question Answer
Name a biguanide antihyperglycemic agent used in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment?Metformin
What effects does metformin have?Decreased hepatic glucose production and absorption, increased insulin-mediated glucose uptake
What is the mechanism of metformin?Activates AMP-activated protein kinase - a liver and muscle enzyme important in insulin signalling.
Name a side effect of metformin.Lactic acidosis
What is metformin indicated for?Treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
What are DPP-4 inhibitors indicated for?Improvement of glycaemic control in Type 2 Diabetes
What is DPP-4 inhibitors mechanism?Prevents degradation of incretins (GLP-1 + GIP), increasing insulin secretion and reducing glucagon secretion
What is GLP-1 Receptor agonists mechanism?Increases insulin secretion and reduces glucagon secretion
What is GLP-1 Receptors agonists indicated for?Improvement of glycaemic control in Type 2 Diabetes
What is the mechanism of action of SGLT2 Inhibitors?Inhibition of SGLT2, preventing glucose reabsorption, allows glucose to be passed out in the urine
What are SGLT2 Inhibitors indicated for?Type 2 Diabetes
What are the mechanism of action of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors?Competitive inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase enzymes found in the small intestinal brush border, slowing carbohydrate digestion
What are the side effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors?Flatulence and diarrhoea (bacterial digestion of carbohydrates)
What are alpha-glucosidase inhibitors indicated for?Type 2 Diabetes
What are sulphonylurea's mechanism of action?Bind to the ATP dependent K+ channel on the B-cell, inhibiting K+ efflux, leads to insulin granule secretion
What are loop diuretics indicated for?Oedema with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, hypertension, liver cirrhosis
What is the mechanism of loop diuretics?Competitive inhibition of NKCC in thick ascending limb at Cl binding side --> prevents water and ion reabsorption
What are side effects of loop diuretics?Hyponatraemia, hypokalaemia, dehydration
Name a loop diureticFurosemide
Name a thiazide diureticHydrochlorothiazide
What are thiazide diuretics indicated for?Hypertension, oedema
What is the mechanism for thiazide diuretics?Inhibition of NaCl symporter, prevents transport of sodium out of the lumen, prevents reabsorption of water
What is Mannitol indicated for?Hypertension, Oedema
What is the mechanism of mannitol?Not reabsorbed in the renal tubules, increases filtrate osmolality, prevents reabsorption of water
What are Aldosterone antagonists indicated for?Low-renin hypertension, hypokalaemia
What is the mechanism of aldosterone antagonists?Antagonists of aldosterone, competitively binding at aldosterone-depedent Na/K exchange site in DCT, increased water and sodium secretion, decreased potassium secretion
What are side effects of aldosterone antagonists?Ataxia, drowsiness, dry skin
What are anti-VEGF indicated for?Treatment of cancer, Prevention of neovascularisation
What is the mechanism of anti-VEGFInhibition by binding with VEGF to prevent interaction with it's receptors, prevents growth of new blood vessels, spread of cancers and neovascularisation in proliferative retinopathy
What are the side effects of anti-VEGFHypertension, Increased risk of Bleeding
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Section 2

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