blueghost's version from 2016-05-09 15:17


Question Answer
Semanticsstudying meaning in languages
lexical semanticsmeanings of words and other lexical expressions/relationships between them
compositional semanticsphrasal meanings and assembly; how lexical meanings combine to give rise to phrasal meanings
sense aspect of meaninghaving some mental representation of an expression's meaning
reference aspect of meaningthe relationship of an expression to the world; collection of referents; need sense to figure out reference; sometimes difficult to determine reference
referentsparticular entities to which some expression refers
relationship between sense and referenceboth components of meaning; need to consider them together
regardless of how it is stored... if we know what a word meanswe known under what conditions it is appropriate to use the word
common nouns and intransitive verbs referencea set /collection of things
hyponymymeaning relation in which a word X is a hyponym of a word Y if the set that is the reference of X is always included in the set that is the reference of Y; ex: poodle is a hyponym of dog and a subset of dog
hyponymy--> subsetwhen some set X is included in a set Y
hypernym word whose meaning includes the meaning of other words (ex: dog is a hypernym of poodle)
sister termswords that are contained in all the same sets or have exactly the same hypernyms
synonymytwo words that have exactly the same reference (ex: quick/rabid and couch/sofa)
antonymywords that have meanings that are related conversely in some significant way
antonymy--> complementary pairswhen there is nothing that is in both x's reference and y's reference they are complementary antonyms (ex: married/unmarried; alive/dead)
antonymy--> gradable pairseverything in one or the other or neither but not having one does not mean having the other (ex: wet/dry; easy/hard; old/young); often words that describe states in between the two extremes
antonymy--> reversespairs of words which suggest some sort of movement; one word suggests the movement and the other suggests the "undoing" of the first word's movement (ex: left/right; inside/outside; expand/contract)
antonymy--> conversesinvolve two opposing points of view; for one member to have reference the other must also (ex: lend/borrow; send/receive; over/under)
propositionclaim expressed by a sentence
truth valueconsidered to be the reference of sentences; the ability to be true or false; all propositions have this; having a truth value does not mean the sentence is true--it can be false and still have a truth value ; truth value can be unknown
truth conditionsrequired in understanding the proposition expressed by a sentence; conditions that would have to hold in order for a some proposition to be true
entailmentwhen the truth of proposition A guarantees the truth of proposition B; actual truth values are not relevant; only evaluation of truth conditions
mutual entailmentwhen two propositions entail one another (the second can entail the first) (ex: ian has a female sibling and ian has a sister)
incompatible propositonswhen it is impossible for both propositions to be true; the truth conditions for one are incompatible with the truth conditions for the other (ex: no dogs bark and all dogs bark)
principle of compositionalitythe meaning of a sentence is a function of the meanings of the words it contains and how these words are syntactically combined
compositionalthe meanings of multi-word expressions are predictable from the meanings of words and their syntactic combination
idiomsexpressions that have to be stored in the mental lexicon because it is non-compositional
pure intersectionadjectival combination type; collecting all entities that are in overlapping sets (ex: set of all green things and set of all sweaters would intersect with set of all green sweaters)
intersective adjectivesadjectives that produce pure intersections
relative intersectionwhen the reference of the adjective has to be determined relative the reference of the noun
subsective adjectiveswhen an adjective identifies subsets of other sets (ex: big in big plants, big whales, big dogs)
non-intersectionwhen the use of adjectives does not necessarily refer to a real solution (ex: alleged thief; possible solution)
non-intersection adjectivean adjective that does not require reference to objects denoted by the noun
anti-intersection adjectivesadjectives in which the reference of the resulting expression cannot overlap with the noun's reference (ex: fake Picasso caNNOT refer to Picasso)

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