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beatakaczorek's version from 2018-11-24 21:36

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the sectors of the economy

Question Answer
reference point/ point of referencea standard or a benchmark against which something or someone is measuredpunkt odniesienia
reference booksbooks which are collections of factual information e.g. dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, lexicons etc.podręczniki, książki naukowe
the Global Industry Classification Standardthe most referenced classification of sectors and industriesglobalna klasyfikacja działalności gospodarczych
industrythe word typically used in English to mean any section of the economy, not only the ones which deal with industrial processing e.g. banking, advertising; means just a section/ type of businessbranża-sektor rynku; przemysł
memorize

economy classification:primary sector

Question Answer
agriculturerolnictwo
forestryleśnictwo
mininggórnictwo
quarryingwydobywanie kamieni
fishingrybołóstwo
huntingpolowanie
gatheringzbieractwo
obtainsuzyskuje
harvests or excavateszbiory lub wykopy
extracts natural resources directlybezpośrednie wydobywnictwo zasobów naturalnych
natural resources = natural assetsterials which exist as such/ naturally in nature (2)zasoby naturalne
raw materialsunprocessed materials from which products are madesurowce
to excavate = to extractto dig from the earth; e.g. mineral resources (2)wykopać
to grow plants/ cropsuprawiać rośliny/plony
to harvest plants and cropszbierać rośłiny/plony
to farm animals/ livestock = to breed animals/ livestockhodować zwierzęta (inwentarz (2)
animal husbandryfarming animals for economic purposeshodowla zwierząt
to produce food (grow or farm)uprawiać/wytwarzać żywność
to manufacture products/ goods (process industrially)wytwarzać produkty / towary (proces przemysłowy)
produce (noun)vegetables, fruit and crops; agriculturalprodukować rośliny
memorize

economy classification:secondary sector

Question Answer
processing raw materials into finished/ready goods or products; also construction industryprzetwarzanie surowców w gotowe towary(2) lub produkty; także przemysł budowlany
to process perform a series of operations (mechanical or chemical) in order to change sthprzetwarzać
construction building/ erecting/ developing buildings or other structures vs building - a structurebudowa
industrial/ industrialized nations those coutries with a developed industry, whose economic output (production) is mostly …kraje przemysłowe / uprzemysłowione
heavy industry is business-oriented/ infrastructure oriented manufacturing; construction industry is part of itprzemysł ciężki
light industryis consumer oriented; (food industry, consumer electronics and household appliances, clothes)przemysł lekki
FMCGs = fast-moving consumer goods = perishables goods and products for fast use and consumption e.g food, toiletries, clothestowary nietrwałe
consumer durables = non-perishables goods and products with a relatively long life cycle/ able to be used for a long time e.g. household appliancestowary trwałe
memorize

economy classification:tertiary sector

Question Answer
tertiary sectorservice sectorsektor usługowy
servicestransportation, distribution, retailing and wholesaling, entertainment, medical care, education, consulting, professional services (legal, financial, designing, decorating etc.) entertainment, tourism, catering, restaurant industry etc.usługi
to provide servicesto do serviceswykonać usługę
the next/ more advanced stage of developmentnastępny / bardziej zaawansowany etap rozwoju
tertiarisationthe shift of the most advanced economies from the primary and secondary sectors into the tertiary section - has been happening over the last several decadesserwicyzacja; przesunięcie do 3 sektora
memorize

additional proposed sector:quaternary and quinternary sector

Question Answer
knowledge economythe system of production and consumption based mostly on using intellectual capital;internet and communication technologies; knowledge-based services: designing, financial advising, education; entertainment and provision of culture, R&D (research and development);gospodarka oparta na wiedzy
knowledge workera person whose job involves handling or using informationpracownik sprzedający swoją wiedzę
IT information technology
ICTinfromation and communication technologies
the modern IT corporations e.g. Google, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn etc.nowoczesne IT korporacje
the innovative recruitment strategies of IT companies e.g Google's mathematical problem solving billboard adinnowacyjne metody rekrutacji
expertise-based advanced management and leadership jobsoparte na ekspertyzie zaawansowane zarządzanie i stanowiska kierownicze
expertisein-depth, advanced knowledge; advanced forms of human services such as hospitality, medical care, child care, tourismekspertyza
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alternative division of the economy

Question Answer
SMEs  small and medium-sized enterprises; the foundation of modern economies;małe i średnie przedsiębiorstwa
SOEs  state owned enterprises especially the ones traditionally provided by the state/ the public sector e.g. transportation, postal services, medical services etc.przedsiębiorstwa państwowe
memorize

types of business

Question Answer
a sole trader/ sole proprietor = sole proprietorship  (sole = one and only; proprietor = owner);jednoosobowa firma/ działalność gospodarcza
to be self-employed  working for oneself/ one's own business or be a freelancer;być samozatrudnionym
a freelancer  independent professional working on specific projects for a fee e.g. journalists, writers, photographers, designers, architects, financial or legal advisors; to be a freelance journalist etc.wolny zawód/ prowadzić działalność profesjonalną na własną rękę
to be self-made  to own one's success only to one's hard work;wykreować siebie, odnieść sukces ciężką pracą
to start from scratch  to start from the very beginning;zaczynać od zera
a partnership  s mall number of people running their business together with the same responsibilities; e.g. legal firms; architect/ design firms; accounting/ auditing firms etc,partnerstwo
a firm  provides specialist professional servicesfirma (na małą skalę)
a company manufactures/ processes resources or offers services on a large scalefirma (na większą skalę)
a limited liability company ( Llc; Am. E.) = a private limited company (Ltd; Br.E.)spółka zoo (2)
LLC  a limited liability company;
ltd a private limited company;
liability  legal responsibilityodpowiedzialność prawna
limited liability  liability for the debts is restricted only to the value of the assets of the company, not the assets of its owners;ogranioczona odpowiedzialność prawna
a corporation (Am.E.) = a public limited company (Br.E.) companies publicly owned (i.e. owned by shareholders);spółka akcyjna (2)
PLC/plc  public limited company;
Corp./ Inc.  corporation;
to go public/ to float  to issue shares and become a public company;wejść na giełdę (2)
IPO/ flotation/ going public  becoming a public company;stawać się spółką akcyjną (3)
IPO  initial public offering;pierwsze wypuszenie akcji na sprzedaż
a listed/ quoted company;notowana na giełdzie firma (2)
go private/ to delist a company  to leave a stock exchange and be owned by a private entitypowrócić do sektora prywatnego (2)
a franchise  the owner of the company (franchisor) allows the second party (a franchisee) to use the brand, products, facilities for a franchising fee and a share in profits; e.g. chains of restaurants; clothing companies, cosmetics shops etc.;franczyzna
FMCGs  consumer perishables Fast-Moving Consumer Goods products that are sold quickly and at relatively low cost. Examples include non-durable goods such as packaged foods, beverages, toiletries, over-the-counter drugs, and other consumablesprodukty szybkiego zużycia
memorize

business growth strategies

Question Answer
comply with/ abide by/ conform to rules/ regulations/ law = obeyprzestrzegać (3) zasad (3) = (1)
Web site/ Web page vs website/ webpage;The difference between a website and a web page is that a website is a collection of web pages with information on a subject, and a web page is a smaller part of a larger website usually containing more specific information. If a website were a book, then a webpage would be a chapter in that book.różnica między website a webpage
pronunciation- pharmaceutical (färməˈso͞otikəl)wymowa 'farmaceutyczny)
staying private pozostać w sektorze prywtanym
going public stać się firmą publiczną
becoming a subsidiary to large company stać się filią(spółką zależną) dużego przedsiębiorstwa
a subsidiary  a daughter company in a conglomerate/ holding of businessesfirma zależna
merging with another company fuzja z inną firmą
acquiring a smaller company przejmowanie mniejszej firmy
an acquisition is usually friendly agreement between companies)przyjazne przejęcie innego przedsiębiorstwa
a takeover implies one of the companies is stronger so the process is more hostilemniej przjazne przejęcie innego przedsiębiorstwa
memorize

industry groups

Question Answer
consumer discretionaries non-essential goods and servicesdobra i usługi nie będące pierwszorzędne do zaspokojenia
consumer staples (essentials)dobra i usługi niezbędne do przeżycia
utilites  companies providing essential services for households and commercial property: running water, electricity, natural gas, central heating, garbage disposal; the services delivered to households or commercial property such as running water, electricity, natural gas, central heating, garbage disposalmedia (woda, prąd ip)
household appliances = white goods;sprzęt AGD
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